Supreme Court of California Justia
Citation 50 Cal. 4th 1277, 241 P.3d 855, 117 Cal. Rptr. 3d 359

Martinez v. Regents of UC

Filed 11/15/10

IN THE SUPREME COURT OF CALIFORNIA

ROBERT MARTINEZ et al.,
Plaintiffs and Appellants,
S167791
v.
Ct.App. 3 C054124
THE REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY
OF CALIFORNIA et al.,
Yolo County
Defendants and Respondents. )
Super. Ct. No. CV052064

This case involves a controversial subject: persons unlawfully present in
this country. The California Legislature has provided that unlawful aliens are
exempt from paying nonresident tuition at California state colleges and
universities under certain circumstances. (Ed. Code, § 68130.5 (section 68130.5).)
Congress has prohibited the states from making unlawful aliens eligible for
postsecondary education benefits under certain circumstances. (8 U.S.C. § 1623
(section 1623).) Plaintiffs challenge section 68130.5‟s validity, largely on the
basis that it violates section 1623. Defendants argue section 68130.5 complies
with federal law.
This court has received many briefs making policy arguments for and
against section 68130.5‟s tuition exemption. We have received arguments that
section 68130.5 affords deserving students educational opportunities that would
not otherwise be available and, conversely, arguments that it flouts the will of
Congress, wastes taxpayers‟ money, and encourages illegal immigration. But this
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court does not make policy. Whether Congress‟s prohibition or the Legislature‟s
exemption is good policy is not for us to say. Rather, we must decide the legal
question of whether California‟s exemption violates Congress‟s prohibition or is
otherwise invalid. We must decide the statutory question by employing settled
methods of statutory construction.
The main legal issue is this: Section 1623 provides that an alien not
lawfully present in this country shall not be eligible on the basis of residence
within a state for any postsecondary education benefit unless a citizen or national
of this country is eligible for that benefit. In general, nonresidents of California
who attend the state‟s colleges and universities must pay nonresident tuition. (Ed.
Code, § 68050.) But section 68130.5, subdivision (a), exempts from this
requirement students — including those not lawfully in this country — who meet
certain requirements, primarily that they have attended high school in California
for at least three years. The question is whether this exemption is based on
residence within California in violation of section 1623.
Because the exemption is given to all who have attended high school in
California for at least three years (and meet the other requirements), and not all
who have done so qualify as California residents for purposes of in-state tuition,
and further because not all unlawful aliens who would qualify as residents but for
their unlawful status are eligible for the exemption, we conclude the exemption is
not based on residence in California. Rather, it is based on other criteria.
Accordingly, section 68130.5 does not violate section 1623.
We also conclude plaintiffs‟ remaining challenges to section 68130.5 lack
merit. Specifically, section 68130.5 does not violate another federal statute (8
U.S.C. § 1621 (section 1621)), is not impliedly preempted by federal law, and
does not violate the privileges and immunities clause of the Fourteenth
Amendment to the United States Constitution. We reverse the judgment of the
2
Court of Appeal, which had found section 68130.5 invalid on each of these
grounds.
I. PROCEDURAL BACKGROUND
Plaintiffs allege that they are United States citizens who are or were
students paying nonresident tuition at a California public university or college, and
that they have been “illegally denied exemption from nonresident tuition under
California Education Code section 68130.5.” They have filed this lawsuit against
the Regents of the University of California (Regents) and others, including
officials representing the California State University System and the California
Community Colleges. The complaint also alleges that “[p]laintiffs intend to and
hereby maintain the claims reflected herein as a class action. The plaintiff class
consists of thousands of former and current nonresident U.S. citizens too
numerous to be practically joined.”
The complaint states 10 causes of action. The first eight causes of action
allege, in order, that section 68130.5 violates the following legal provisions: (1)
section 1623; (2) section 1621; (3) 42 U.S.C. section 1983; (4) the equal protection
clause of the United States Constitution; (5) the privileges and immunities clause
of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution; (6) “field
preemption”; (7) the equal protection clause of the California Constitution; and (8)
the Unruh Civil Rights Act (Civ. Code, § 51 et seq.). The ninth and 10th causes of
action are for injunctive relief and declaratory relief, respectively. Plaintiffs seek a
determination that section 68130.5 is invalid on each alleged ground,
reimbursement of nonresident tuition fees, damages, and attorney fees.
The defendants demurred to the complaint. The trial court sustained the
demurrer without leave to amend and dismissed the action. Plaintiffs appealed.
The Court of Appeal reversed the judgment. It held that plaintiffs had
forfeited the claim that they have a private right of action to enforce section 1621
3
or section 1623 by failing to address the matter in their opening brief, and that they
failed to show reversible error in the trial court‟s denial of certain judicial notice
requests. It rejected plaintiffs‟ arguments that section 68130.5 conflicted with
other California statutory provisions, and that it violated the due process clauses of
the California and United States Constitutions, the Unruh Civil Rights Act, and
article I, section 31 of the California Constitution. But the Court of Appeal also
held that section 68130.5 is expressly preempted by both sections 1621 and 1623,
that section 68130.5 is also impliedly preempted, that plaintiffs should be allowed
leave to amend the complaint regarding their equal protection claim, and that the
complaint stated a viable claim that section 68130.5 violates the privileges and
immunities clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.
Plaintiffs, the Regents, and the California Community Colleges all
petitioned for review. We denied the plaintiffs‟ petition and granted the Regents‟
and the California Community Colleges‟ petitions. The Regents‟ petition presents
the issues of whether section 1621 or section 1623 preempts section 68130.5, and
whether section 68130.5 violates the privileges and immunities clause of the
Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. The California
Community Colleges‟ petition presents the issue of whether “federal immigration
laws preempt California‟s policy of granting in-state tuition to nonresident high
school graduates.”
II. DISCUSSION
A. Introduction
“Each student shall be classified as a resident or nonresident at the
University of California, the California State University, or the California
Maritime Academy or at a California community college.” (Ed. Code, § 68040.)
“A student classified as a nonresident shall be required, except as otherwise
4
provided in this part, to pay, in addition to other fees required by the institution,
nonresident tuition.” (Ed. Code, § 68050.) Thus, nonresidents must generally pay
nonresident tuition at public universities and colleges in California. The issue of
this case revolves around when, if ever, California may exempt aliens not lawfully
present in this country from having to pay nonresident tuition.
In 2001, effective January 1, 2002, the Legislature added section 68130.5 to
the Education Code. (Stats. 2001, ch. 814, § 2.) It provides:
“Notwithstanding any other provision of law:
“(a) A student, other than a nonimmigrant alien within the meaning of
paragraph (15) of subsection (a) of Section 1101 of Title 8 of the United States
Code, who meets all of the following requirements shall be exempt from paying
nonresident tuition at the California State University and the California
Community Colleges:
“(1) High school attendance in California for three or more years.
“(2) Graduation from a California high school or attainment of the
equivalent thereof.
“(3) Registration as an entering student at, or current enrollment at, an
accredited institution of higher education in California not earlier than the fall
semester or quarter of the 2001-02 academic year.
“(4) In the case of a person without lawful immigration status, the filing of
an affidavit with the institution of higher education stating that the student has
filed an application to legalize his or her immigration status, or will file an
application as soon as he or she is eligible to do so.
“(b) A student exempt from nonresident tuition under this section may be
reported by a community college district as a full-time equivalent student for
apportionment purposes.
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“(c) The Board of Governors of the California Community Colleges and
the Trustees of the California State University shall prescribe rules and regulations
for the implementation of this section.
“(d) Student information obtained in the implementation of this section is
confidential.”1
Plaintiffs contend this statute is invalid on various grounds. Their main
argument is that federal immigration law preempts it. “The supremacy clause of
the United States Constitution establishes a constitutional choice-of-law rule,
makes federal law paramount, and vests Congress with the power to preempt state
law.” (Viva! Internat. Voice for Animals v. Adidas Promotional Retail
Operations, Inc. (2007) 41 Cal.4th 929, 935.) “The „[p]ower to regulate
immigration is unquestionably exclusively a federal power.‟ ” (In re Jose C.
(2009) 45 Cal.4th 534, 550, quoting De Canas v. Bica (1976) 424 U.S. 351, 354.)
“While the immigration power is exclusive, it does not follow that any and all
state regulations touching on aliens are preempted. (De Canas v. Bica, supra, at p.
355.) Only if the state statute is in fact a „regulation of immigration,‟ i.e., „a
determination of who should or should not be admitted into the country, and the
conditions under which a legal entrant may remain‟ (ibid.), is preemption
structural and automatic. Otherwise, the usual rules of statutory preemption
analysis apply; state law will be displaced only when affirmative congressional
1
By its terms, section 68130.5 applies only to the California State University
and California Community Colleges, and not to the University of California.
Education Code section 68134 provides: “No provision of this part shall be
applicable to the University of California unless the Regents of the University of
California, by resolution, make such provision applicable.” The parties agree that
the Regents have, by resolution, made section 68130.5 applicable. (Regents of
U.C., Standing Order 110.2.)
6
action compels the conclusion it must be. (Id. at pp. 356-357.)” (In re Jose C.,
supra, at p. 550.) Because section 68130.5 does not “regulate[] who may enter or
remain in the United States, we proceed under the usual preemption rules.” (In re
Jose C., supra, at p. 550.)
“We have identified four ways in which Congress may preempt state law:
express, conflict, obstacle, and field preemption.” (In re Jose C., supra, 45
Cal.4th at p. 550.) Plaintiffs‟ main preemption argument is that two federal
statutes — sections 1621 and 1623 — expressly preempt section 68130.5.
Because the argument concerning section 1623 is the stronger of the two, we will
consider that one first and then the section 1621 argument. Then we will consider
plaintiffs‟ remaining arguments.
The parties disagree as to whether a presumption against preemption exists.
The point is unclear. In the past, the high court has indicated that a general
presumption against preemption applies even in the context of immigration law.
(See In re Jose C., supra, 45 Cal.4th at p. 551, citing De Canas v. Bica, supra, 424
U.S. at p. 356.) However, more recent high court authority suggests that no
particular presumption applies. (See Viva! Internat. Voice for Animals v. Adidas
Promotional Retail Operations, Inc., supra, 41 Cal.4th at p. 939, and cases cited.)
We need not resolve the question here because, as we explain, we find no
preemption even without a presumption.
Before we turn to the issues, we must comment on terminology.
Defendants and supporting amici curiae generally refer to a person not lawfully in
this country by a term such as “undocumented immigrant.” Plaintiffs and
supporting amici curiae generally use the term “illegal alien,” as did the Court of
Appeal. The term “undocumented immigrant” is vague and is not used in the
relevant statutes. It is also euphemistic, because it is unlawful to be in this country
and to be undocumented in the sense in which defendants use the term. On the
7
other hand, some view the term “illegal alien” as pejorative. Wishing to be as
neutral, yet as accurate, as possible in our terminology, we turn to the most
relevant statutes for assistance. Section 68130.5, subdivision (a)(4), uses the
phrase “a person without lawful immigration status.” The federal provisions,
sections 1621(d) and 1623(a), use the phrase “an alien who is not lawfully present
in the United States.” Both of these phrases are too bulky to be used continually.
We believe it best to shorten these phrases to the two-word term “unlawful alien.”
Accordingly, we will use that term in this opinion.
B. Title 8 United States Code section 1623
Section 1623(a) provides: “Notwithstanding any other provision of law, an
alien who is not lawfully present in the United States shall not be eligible on the
basis of residence within a State (or a political subdivision) for any postsecondary
education benefit unless a citizen or national of the United States is eligible for
such a benefit (in no less an amount, duration, and scope) without regard to
whether the citizen or national is such a resident.” The section applies “to benefits
provided on or after July 1, 1998.” (§ 1623(b).) Section 1623 was enacted on
September 30, 1996, as part of the omnibus Illegal Immigration Reform and
Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996. (Pub.L. No. 104-208, div. C, § 505 (Sept.
30, 1996) 110 Stat. 3009-672; see INS v. St. Cyr (2001) 533 U.S. 289, 292.)
Plaintiffs contend that section 68130.5 violates this statute, i.e., that section
68130.5 makes an unlawful alien eligible for a benefit (in-state tuition) on the
basis of residence without making a citizen eligible for the same benefit. When it
enacted section 68130.5, the Legislature was aware of section 1623. Indeed,
Governor Gray Davis had vetoed an earlier version of what eventually became
section 68130.5 because he believed section 1623 would require that the same
exemption from nonresident tuition be given to all out-of-state legal United States
8
residents. (Governor‟s veto message to Assem. on Assem. Bill No. 1197 (1999-
2000 Reg. Sess.) (Sept. 29, 2000).) During the legislative process leading to
section 68130.5‟s enactment, the Legislative Counsel issued an opinion
concluding that the provision would not conflict with section 1623. (Ops. Cal.
Legis. Counsel, No. 15729 (June 22, 2001), p. 1.) Ultimately, in an uncodified
section of the bill enacting section 68130.5, the Legislature found that “[t]his act,
as enacted during the 2001-02 Regular Session, does not confer postsecondary
education benefits on the basis of residence within the meaning of Section 1623 of
Title 8 of the United States Code.” (Stats. 2001, ch. 814, § 1, subd. (a)(5).)
Defendants argue preliminarily that we should give deference to both the
Legislative Counsel‟s opinion and the legislative finding. We disagree. It is true
that normally we give legislative findings great weight (Professional Engineers v.
Department of Transportation (1997) 15 Cal.4th 543, 569), and “[o]pinions of the
Legislative Counsel, though not binding, are entitled to great weight when courts
attempt to discern legislative intent” (Pacific Lumber Co. v. State Water Resources
Control Bd. (2006) 37 Cal.4th 921, 939). But this legislative finding is one of law,
not of fact, and we are not attempting to discern legislative intent but are deciding
whether the statute is valid. The relevant legislative intent behind section 68130.5
is clear. The Legislature intended the statute to be valid. But whether a statute is
valid is a legal determination for the courts, not the Legislature, to make. In
deciding whether a federal statute expressly preempts a state statute, it is
Congress’s purpose that matters, not the state Legislature‟s. (Medtronic, Inc. v.
Lohr (1996) 518 U.S. 470, 484-485.) Accordingly, we will consider the
legislative finding and the Legislative Counsel‟s opinion — as well as the
Governor‟s veto message regarding the predecessor bill — for their persuasive
value, but we owe them no deference. In fact, we see nothing in any of these
9
sources that adds substantially to the parties‟ thorough briefs, and we do not
discuss them separately from the arguments in the briefs.
In deciding whether section 1623 preempts section 68130.5, we consider
primarily section 1623‟s language. “Congress‟ intent, of course, primarily is
discerned from the language of the pre-emption statute and the „statutory
framework‟ surrounding it.” (Medtronic, Inc. v. Lohr, supra, 518 U.S. at p. 486.)
In determining legislative intent, “[w]e first examine the statutory language, giving
it a plain and commonsense meaning.” (Coalition of Concerned Communities,
Inc. v. City of Los Angeles (2004) 34 Cal.4th 733, 737.) Section 1623‟s language
compels us to conclude that it does not prohibit what the Legislature did in
enacting section 68130.5.
Section 1623(a) prohibits a state from making unlawful aliens eligible “on
the basis of residence within a State” for a postsecondary education benefit. The
fatal flaw in plaintiffs‟ argument concerning section 1623 is their contention that
section 68130.5‟s exemption from paying out-of-state tuition is based on
residence. It is not. It is based on other criteria, specifically, that persons possess
a California high school degree or equivalent; that if they are unlawful aliens, they
file an affidavit stating that they will try to legalize their immigration status; and,
especially important here, that they have attended “[h]igh school . . . in California
for three or more years.” (§ 68130.5, subd. (a)(1), (2), & (4).) Indeed, both before
and after section 68130.5‟s enactment, the law has been that unlawful immigrants
cannot be deemed California residents for purposes of paying resident tuition.
(Ed. Code, § 68062; Regents of University of California v. Superior Court (1990)
225 Cal.App.3d 972, 980.) Moreover, many unlawful aliens who would qualify as
California residents but for their unlawful status, and thus would not have to pay
out-of-state tuition, will not be eligible for section 68130.5‟s exemption — only
10
those who attended high school in California for at least three years and meet the
other requirements are eligible for the exemption.
The section 68130.5 exemption cannot be deemed to be based on residence
for the simple reason that many nonresidents may qualify for it. Every
nonresident who meets section 68130.5‟s requirements — whether a United States
citizen, a lawful alien, or an unlawful alien — is entitled to the nonresident tuition
exemption. Attending high school in California for at least three years and
meeting the other requirements are not the functional equivalent of residing in
California. Some American citizens who are not residents of California may also
be eligible for the exemption.
Defendants point out three ways that students could have attended high
school in California for at least three years and otherwise qualified for the
exemption yet not be California residents. First, some students who live in an
adjoining state or country are permitted to attend high school in California in some
circumstances, even though they are not California residents. (Ed. Code,
§§ 48050, 48051.) Second, the children of parents who live outside of California
but who attend boarding schools in California might attend California high schools
for three years, yet not be California residents. Third, those who attended high
school in California for three years but then moved out of the state and lost their
residency status would apparently be eligible for the exemption if they decided to
attend a public college or university in California. Indeed, the Regents inform us
that a majority of University of California students receiving the nonresident
tuition exemption are in this country lawfully.
If Congress had intended to prohibit states entirely from making unlawful
aliens eligible for in-state tuition, it could easily have done so. It could simply
have provided, for example, that “an alien who is not lawfully present in the
United States shall not be eligible” for a postsecondary education benefit. But it
11
did not do so; instead, it provided that “an alien who is not lawfully present in the
United States shall not be eligible on the basis of residence within a State” for a
postsecondary education benefit. (§ 1623(a), italics added.) The reference to the
benefit being on the basis of residence must have some meaning. It can only
qualify, and thus limit, the prohibition‟s reach. Section 1623 does not govern this
case.
Finding to the contrary, the Court of Appeal stated: “The wording of the
California statute, requiring attendance at a California high school for three or
more years, creates a de facto residence requirement. Or, as plaintiffs put it, if
section 68130.5 requires an illegal alien to attend a California high school for three
years in order to qualify for the exemption from nonresident tuition, then the state
has effectively established a surrogate criterion for residence.” We disagree. A
residency requirement and the criteria stated in section 68130.5 share certain
similarities, and those who satisfy section 68130.5 will often also be residents of
California. But, as we have explained, section 68130.5‟s criteria are not the same
as residence, nor are they a de facto or surrogate residency requirement. Congress
specifically referred to residence — not some form of surrogate for residence —
as the prohibited basis for granting unlawful aliens a postsecondary education
benefit.
In determining Congress‟s intent, courts may also consider “the „structure
and purpose of the statute as a whole.‟ ” (Medtronic, Inc. v. Lohr, supra, 518 U.S.
at p. 486.) Plaintiffs cite Congress‟s overall purpose in its immigration legislation
in support of their expansive view of section 1623. Congress has provided
statements of national policy concerning immigration. It stated that “[i]t continues
to be the immigration policy of the United States that — [¶] . . . [¶] (B) the
availability of public benefits not constitute an incentive for immigration to the
United States” (8 U.S.C § 1601(2)(B)), and that “[i]t is a compelling government
12
interest to remove the incentive for illegal immigration provided by the
availability of public benefits” (8 U.S.C § 1601(6)). This general immigration
policy would have supported an absolute ban on unlawful aliens‟ receiving the
exemption. But section 1623 does not impose an absolute ban. The general policy
in section 1601 cannot change section 1623‟s plain language or Congress‟s
specific charge in this regard. (See also § 1621 [not making absolute the ban
against unlawful aliens receiving public benefits], discussed in pt. II. C., post.)
Plaintiffs also cite legislative history. When statutory language is
ambiguous, this court and the United States Supreme Court sometimes turn to
legislative history, including committee reports, to ascertain legislative or
congressional intent. (Eldred v. Ashcroft (2003) 537 U.S. 186, 209, fn. 16;
Coalition of Concerned Communities, Inc. v. City of Los Angeles, supra, 34
Cal.4th at p. 737.) A House conference committee report, commenting on the
language that was ultimately enacted as section 1623, states: “This section
provides that illegal aliens are not eligible for in-state tuition rates at public
institutions of higher education.” (H.R.Rep. No. 104-828, 2d Sess. p. 240 (1996)
[joint explanatory statement of conference com. on revisions to H.R. No. 2202,
104th Cong.].)2
Defendants argue that this report does not apply to section 1623 because it
concerned a related bill that was never enacted (H.R. No. 2202) rather than the
2
The conference committee report considered Senate amendments made in
May of 1996 to House Bill No. 2202 (104th Cong., 1st Sess. (1995)), then
proposed revisions to that bill. As amended, House Bill No. 2202 contained the
language that was ultimately enacted as section 1623. (See H.R.Rep. No. 104-
828, 2d Sess., § 507, p. 134 (1996.) However, the bill, while reported out of
conference, was not enacted. Instead, section 1623 was enacted as part of a
subsequent omnibus bill. (Pub. L. No. 104-208, § 505(a) (Sept. 30, 1996) 110
Stat. 3009, 3009-672.)
13
omnibus immigration bill that was enacted and that included section 1623. We
disagree. The language the conference committee report considered was identical
to section 1623‟s language. (Compare H.R. No. 2202, § 507, as added by House
conference committee in H.R.Rep. No. 104-828, 2d Sess., at p. 134, with Pub.L.
No. 104-208, § 505, 110 Stat. 3009-672, which became § 1623.) The high court
has considered legislative history concerning a bill that was not enacted when the
relevant language was identical to the language of the statute actually enacted.
(Begier v. IRS (1990) 496 U.S. 53, 66 & fn. 6; see also INS v. St. Cyr, supra, 533
U.S. at p. 318 [considering the same conference committee report].)
But, for a different reason, we believe the conference committee report does
not reliably show that Congress intended to prohibit states entirely from
exempting unlawful aliens from paying nonresident tuition. The report‟s general
summary oversimplifies more nuanced statutory language. The high court has
cautioned that “[e]xtrinsic materials have a role in statutory interpretation only to
the extent they shed a reliable light on the enacting Legislature‟s understanding of
otherwise ambiguous terms,” and that “judicial reliance on legislative materials
like committee reports . . . may give unrepresentative committee members — or,
worse yet, unelected staffers and lobbyists — both the power and the incentive to
attempt strategic manipulations of legislative history to secure results they were
unable to achieve through the statutory text.” (Exxon Mobil Corp. v. Allapattah
Services, Inc. (2005) 545 U.S. 546, 568.) The statement in the committee report
plaintiffs cite may, in general, be correct to a large extent, but it cannot change the
circumstance that the actual statutory prohibition is not absolute, but qualified.
Some legislators might have supported section 1623‟s plain language qualifying
the prohibition but not have supported the committee report‟s seemingly absolute
language. Section 1623‟s actual language prevails, not the committee report‟s.
14
Plaintiffs also cite statements of individual legislators that are similar to the
statement in the conference committee report on which they rely. But the views of
individual legislators carry little weight in interpreting the intent of the legislative
body as a whole. (See People v. Johnson (2002) 28 Cal.4th 240, 247.) As the high
court explained in response to a similar argument regarding a different statute:
“Floor statements from two Senators cannot amend the clear and unambiguous
language of a statute. We see no reason to give greater weight to the views of two
Senators than to the collective votes of both Houses, which are memorialized in
the unambiguous statutory text.” (Barnhart v. Sigmon Coal Co. (2002) 534 U.S.
438, 457.)
Plaintiffs also argue that the history behind section 68130.5‟s enactment
shows that the Legislature sought to avoid section 1623‟s prohibition. It does
show that. Indeed, plaintiffs may be right that the Legislature‟s primary
motivation in enacting section 68130.5 was to give unlawful aliens who live in
California the benefit of resident tuition in a way that does not violate section
1623. The uncodified portion of the law that became section 68130.5 suggests this
motivation. The Legislature found and declared that “[t]here are high school
pupils who have attended elementary and secondary schools in this state for most
of their lives and who are likely to remain, but are precluded from obtaining an
affordable college education because they are required to pay nonresident tuition
rates”; and that “[t]hese pupils have already proven their academic eligibility and
merit by being accepted into our state‟s colleges and universities.” (Stats. 2001,
ch. 814, § 1, subd. (a)(1), (2).) This description seems to apply primarily to
unlawful aliens. Contrary to plaintiffs‟ suggestion, however, nothing is legally
wrong with the Legislature‟s attempt to avoid section 1623. As we have
explained, whether the Legislature succeeded in this attempt is for the courts to
15
decide, but the mere desire to avoid the restrictions provides no basis to overturn
the legislation.
Section 68130.5 does not violate section 1623.
C. Title 8 United States Code section 1621
Plaintiffs argue, and the Court of Appeal found, that section 68130.5 also
violates another express federal preemption provision: section 1621. Section
1621 was enacted in August 1996, shortly before section 1623, as part of the
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRA).
(Pub.L. No. 104-193, § 411 (Aug. 22, 1996) 110 Stat. 2268; see League of United
Latin American Citizens v. Wilson (C.D.Cal. 1997) 997 F.Supp. 1244, 1249, 1251,
1253.) We conclude that section 68130.5 does not violate section 1621.
As relevant here, section 1621 has two parts: (1) a general rule that
unlawful aliens are not eligible for state or local public benefits (§ 1621(a)); and
(2) a description of the circumstances under which a state may make an unlawful
alien eligible for those public benefits (§ 1621(d)).3
Section 1621(a) provides:
“Notwithstanding any other provision of law and except as provided in
subsections (b) and (d) of this section, an alien who is not —
“(1) a qualified alien (as defined in section 1641 of this title),
“(2) a nonimmigrant under the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C.
§ 1101 et seq.], or
“(3) an alien who is paroled into the United States under section 212(d)(5)
of such Act [8 U.S.C. § 1182(d)(5)] for less than one year,
3
Section 1621(b) provides exceptions to the general rule that are not relevant
here. Section 1621(c) defines “[s]tate or local public benefit.”
16
“is not eligible for any State or local public benefit (as defined in
subsection (c) of this section).”
Section 1621(d) provides: “A State may provide that an alien who is not
lawfully present in the United States is eligible for any State or local public benefit
for which such alien would otherwise be ineligible under subsection (a) of this
section only through the enactment of a State law after August 22, 1996, which
affirmatively provides for such eligibility.” (Italics added.)
Section 68130.5 was enacted in 2002, well after August 22, 1996.
Subdivision (a)(4) of that section expressly refers to “the case of a person without
lawful immigration status.” Moreover, the uncodified portion of the law that
became section 68130.5 provides: “(a) The Legislature hereby finds and declares
all of the following: [¶] . . . [¶] (4) This act . . . allows all persons, including
undocumented immigrant students who meet the requirements set forth in Section
68130.5 of the Education Code, to be exempt from nonresident tuition in
California‟s colleges and universities.” (Stats. 2001, ch. 814, § 1, italics added.)
When the same law was amended a year later, the Legislature reiterated this
language. (Stats. 2002, ch. 19, § 1, subd. (a)(4).) Thus, it at least appears the
Legislature affirmatively provided that qualifying unlawful aliens are eligible for
the nonresident tuition exemption. But the Court of Appeal found (and plaintiffs
argue) that, for two reasons, section 68130.5 does not satisfy section 1621‟s
“affirmatively provides” requirement.
First, the Court of Appeal held that, to comply with section 1621, “not only
must the state law specify that illegal aliens are eligible, but the state Legislature
must also expressly reference title 8 U.S.C. section 1621 (which was not done in
the case of § 68130.5).” We disagree. “This argument encounters a formidable
obstacle: It lacks grounding in the text of [the statute].” (Kimbrough v. U.S.
(2007) 552 U.S. 85, 102.) Section 1621‟s text contains no requirement that a state
17
law giving unlawful aliens a benefit must expressly reference the section. As the
sole support for its conclusion, the Court of Appeal cited a conference committee
report on the bill that enacted section 1621, which states: “Only the affirmative
enactment of a law by a State legislature and signed by the Governor after the date
of enactment of this Act, that references this provision, will meet the requirements
of this section.” (H.R.Rep. No. 104-725, 2d Sess., p. 383 (1996), italics added.)
However, for the reasons we explained in part II. B., ante, in finding unpersuasive
a committee report regarding section 1623, such a report cannot change plain
statutory language. (See Exxon Mobil Corp. v. Allapattah Services, Inc., supra,
545 U.S. at p. 568.)
Both this court and the high court have cautioned against reading into a
statute language it does not contain or elements that do not appear on its face.
(Dean v. U.S. (2009) __ U.S. __, __ [129 S.Ct. 1849, 1853]; Vasquez v. State of
California (2008) 45 Cal.4th 243, 253.) This caution is especially pertinent when
the legislative body has shown it knows how to add the element in express terms
when it wishes to do so. (Kimbrough v. U.S., supra, 552 U.S. at p. 103; Vasquez
v. State of California, supra, at p. 252.) Congress has shown it knows how to
require a state specifically to reference a federal law when it wishes to do so,
because it has done just that numerous times. (E.g., 12 U.S.C. § 2279aa-12(b)(2)
[“The provisions of paragraph (1) shall not be applicable to any State that . . .
enacts a law that — [¶] (A) specifically refers to this subsection; and [¶] (B)
expressly provides that paragraph (1) shall not apply to the State” (italics added)];
15 U.S.C. § 80a-3a(c) [“Notwithstanding subsections (a) and (b) of this section . . .
a State may enact a statute that specifically refers to this section and provides
prospectively that this section shall not preempt the laws of that State referred to in
this section” (italics added)].)
18
The general rule that a court should not add an element not appearing on
the face of a statute has particular force here. The Legislature could easily have
referenced section 1621 in section 68130.5, and no doubt it would have done so if
section 1621 had so required. It is unreasonable to conclude that Congress
intended to require the states to comply with section 1621‟s express requirements
and to scour committee reports for other possible requirements not visible in the
statutory language. The committee report may not create a requirement not found
in section 1621 itself.
Second, the Court of Appeal also concluded section 68130.5 did not
provide that qualifying unlawful aliens are eligible for nonresident tuition clearly
enough to satisfy the “affirmatively provides” requirement. “Although section
68130.5 does indicate that illegal aliens are eligible,” the Court of Appeal said, “it
does so in a convoluted manner.” The Court of Appeal stated that “while we do
not hold that [section 1621] requires the state statute to use the words „illegal
aliens,‟ we conclude the language of section 68130.5 does not clearly put the
public on notice that tax dollars are being used to benefit illegal aliens.” Plaintiffs
go further and argue that, to satisfy section 1621, a state “would have to use the
federal statutory term „illegal alien‟ in its legislation — a term that would clearly
put the public on notice.” We disagree. Section 1621 requires no specific words,
and certainly not the specific words “illegal alien,” which not even section 1621
uses. We agree with the Regents‟ argument that “in order to comply, the state
statute must expressly state that it applies to undocumented aliens, rather than
conferring a benefit generally without specifying that its beneficiaries may include
undocumented aliens.” Section 68130.5 does so state. If Congress had intended
to require more, we believe it would have said so clearly and would not have set a
trap for unwary legislatures. Section 68130.5 satisfies section 1621.
19
D. Implied preemption
The Court of Appeal also found that section 68130.5 “falls within the
principle of implied preemption in that it stands as an obstacle to the
accomplishment and execution of the full purposes and objectives of Congress.”
Echoing this conclusion, plaintiffs argue that section 68130.5 is impliedly
preempted through both field preemption and conflict preemption. Congress‟s
intent to preempt “may also be inferred if the scope of the statute indicates that
Congress intended federal law to occupy the legislative field, or if there is an
actual conflict between state and federal law.” (Altria Group, Inc. v. Good (2008)
555 U.S. 70, __ [129 S.Ct. 538, 543]; see also In re Jose C., supra, 45 Cal.4th at p.
551.) This presents a question of Congressional purpose. (Altria Group, Inc. v.
Good, supra, at p. __ [129 S.Ct. at p. 543].) We find no implied preemption.
Critical to the implied preemption analysis is the existence of two express
preemption statutes, namely sections 1621 and 1623. “In Freightliner Corp. v.
Myrick (1995) 514 U.S. 280, the court clarified the relation between express
preemption clauses and implied preemption doctrines, explaining that „an express
definition of the pre-emptive reach of a statute “implies” — i.e., supports a
reasonable inference — that Congress did not intend to pre-empt other matters,‟
but the express clause does not „entirely foreclose[] any possibility of implied pre-
emption.‟ [Citations.] This inference is a simple corollary of ordinary statutory
interpretation principles and in particular „a variant of the familiar principle of
expressio unius est exclusio alterius: Congress‟ enactment of a provision defining
the pre-emptive reach of a statute implies that matters beyond that reach are not
pre-empted.‟ [Citation.]” (Viva! Internat. Voice for Animals v. Adidas
Promotional Retail Operations, Inc., supra, 41 Cal.4th at pp. 944-945.)
In this case, Congress did not merely imply that matters beyond the
preemptive reach of the statutes are not preempted; it said so expressly. Section
20
1621(c) says that a state “may” provide public benefits for unlawful aliens if it
does so in compliance with the statute‟s requirements. This language shows
Congress did not intend to occupy the field fully. (See Jevne v. Superior Court
(2005) 35 Cal.4th 935, 950 [when federal law contains two savings clauses
preserving state law in certain areas, “neither express preemption nor field
preemption . . . is at issue”].) Because section 68130.5 complies with the
conditions set out in both section 1621 and section 1623, those statutes cannot
impliedly preempt it.
Plaintiffs and the Court of Appeal rely substantially on League of United
Latin American Citizens v. Wilson, supra, 997 F.Supp. 1244, which held that
federal law preempted the restrictions that Proposition 187, a voter initiative
enacted in 1994, had placed on unlawful aliens. Wilson, however, is irrelevant to
the issue here. Relying heavily on section 1621 (and not citing § 1623), it does,
indeed, conclude that California “is powerless to enact its own legislative scheme
to regulate alien access to public benefits.” (Wilson, supra, at p. 1261.) But it
adds that California “can do what the PRA permits, and nothing more.” (Ibid.)
Section 1621 is part of the PRA. So the Wilson opinion just brings us back to the
question of what section 1621 permits. As relevant here, Wilson is silent on that
question.
In short, Congress did not impliedly prohibit what it expressly permitted.
Section 68130.5 is not impliedly preempted.
E. Privileges and immunities clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to
the United States Constitution
The Court of Appeal also found that plaintiffs have stated a viable claim
that section 68130.5 violates the privileges and immunities clause of section 1 of
the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (hereafter, privileges
and immunities clause or, sometimes, simply the clause). That clause provides:
21
“No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or
immunities of citizens of the United States . . . .” Section 5 of the Fourteenth
Amendment gives Congress the “power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the
provisions of this article.”4
The Court of Appeal explained that “[p]laintiffs‟ theory, as alleged in the
complaint, was that, „By making illegal aliens who possess no lawful domicile in
the state of California eligible for in-state tuition rates, while denying this benefit
to U.S. citizens whose lawful domicile is outside California, the state of California
has denigrated U.S. citizenship and placed U.S. citizen Plaintiffs in a legally
disfavored position compared to that of illegal aliens.‟ ” It agreed with plaintiffs
that section 1623 was an exercise of Congress‟s power to enforce the Fourteenth
Amendment‟s provisions. It concluded, accordingly, that violating section 1623
also violated the privileges and immunities clause. We disagree. Section 1623
was not violated.
In contrast to the Court of Appeal‟s opinion, which seems only to declare
that in violating section 1623 the state also violated the privileges and immunities
clause, plaintiffs‟ privileges and immunities clause argument is quite broad.
Plaintiffs argue that the clause guarantees the citizen‟s privilege “of being treated
no worse than an illegal alien in the distribution of public benefits.” They seem to
argue that any state action that gives a public benefit to unlawful aliens within the
state‟s borders, even one complying with section 1621, violates the clause unless
the state gives the same public benefit to all American citizens. They cite no
4
Plaintiffs do not rely on the privileges and immunities clause of article IV,
section 2, clause 1, of the United States Constitution, which provides, “The
citizens of each state shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of citizens in
the several states.” (See Supreme Court of New Hampshire v. Piper (1985) 470
U.S. 274; Baldwin v. Montana Fish and Game Comm’n (1978) 436 U.S. 371.)
22
authority that supports this proposition. Indeed, they cite no case interpreting the
clause that compares treatment of unlawful aliens living within a state‟s borders to
treatment of citizens who do not reside in that state. The high court has rarely
invoked the clause to strike down a state statute (see Saenz v. Roe (1999) 526 U.S.
489, 511 (dis. opn. of Rehnquist, C.J.)), and it has never said anything remotely
supporting plaintiffs‟ broad interpretation. Indeed, the court has interpreted the
clause quite narrowly. (See, e.g., Slaughter-House Cases (1872) 83 U.S. 36.)
Plaintiffs note, correctly, that unlike some other constitutional provisions,
the privileges and immunities clause applies only to citizens. (Mathews v. Diaz
(1976) 426 U.S. 67, 78, fn. 12.) Thus, aliens, lawful or unlawful, cannot claim
benefits under the clause. But no authority suggests the clause prohibits states
from ever giving resident aliens (again, lawful or unlawful) benefits they do not
also give to all American citizens. The fact that the clause does not protect aliens
does not logically lead to the conclusion that it also prohibits states from treating
unlawful aliens more favorably than nonresident citizens. (Moreover, were
plaintiffs correct in their interpretation of the clause, section 68130.5 would pass
even their test. That section does not treat citizens worse than unlawful aliens. It
grants the same exemption to all who qualify, whether they are nonresident
citizens or resident unlawful aliens.)
The clause does operate in some circumstances to prevent states from
treating nonresident citizens less favorably than resident citizens. In Saenz v. Roe,
supra, 526 U.S. 489, the high court held that a statutory limitation on state welfare
benefits for recently arrived resident citizens violates the clause. Contrary to
plaintiffs‟ argument, however, the Saenz case does not support their position. The
holding of that case was based on the federal right of interstate travel. (Saenz v.
Roe, supra, at p. 503.) But there is no equivalent federal right for nonresidents to
pay reduced in-state tuition while attending a public college or university. The
23
high court has specifically held that states may charge nonresidents, even those
who are American citizens, more for attending their public postsecondary
institutions than they charge residents. (Vlandis v. Kline (1973) 412 U.S. 441,
452-453.) Plaintiffs seize on certain language the Saenz court used when
describing the right to travel. It described the right as protecting, among other
things, “the right to be treated as a welcome visitor rather than an unfriendly alien
when temporarily present in the second State . . . .” (Saenz v. Roe, supra, at p.
500.) Plaintiffs glean from this language a holding that the clause guarantees a
citizen‟s privilege of being treated no worse than an unlawful alien. They read far
too much into this language coming from a case that does not involve unlawful
aliens. Nothing in the Saenz case supports their expansive interpretation of the
clause.
It cannot be the case that states may never give a benefit to unlawful aliens
without giving the same benefit to all American citizens. In Plyler v. Doe (1982)
457 U.S. 202, the high court held that the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth
Amendment to the United States Constitution prohibits states from denying “to
undocumented school-age children the free public education that it provides to
children who are citizens of the United States or legally admitted aliens.” (Plyler,
supra, at p. 205; see also id. at p. 230.) Thus, the high court has held that the
Constitution requires states to provide a free public education to some unlawful
aliens. We do not believe that the same court would also hold that the privileges
and immunities clause requires states that comply with this requirement, and
provide a free education to unlawful aliens, also to provide the same free
education to all citizens of the entire United States.
Congress has addressed the question of postsecondary education benefits
for unlawful aliens (§ 1623), but the privileges and immunities clause does not
speak to the question. Section 68130.5 does not violate that clause.
24
III. CONCLUSION
We reverse the judgment of the Court of Appeal and remand the matter to
that court for further proceedings consistent with this opinion.
CHIN, J.
WE CONCUR:
GEORGE, C.J.
KENNARD, J.
BAXTER, J.
WERDEGAR, J.
MORENO, J.
CORRIGAN, J.

25



See last page for addresses and telephone numbers for counsel who argued in Supreme Court.

Name of Opinion Martinez v. Regents of University of California
__________________________________________________________________________________

Unpublished Opinion


Original Appeal
Original Proceeding
Review Granted
XXX 166 Cal.App.4th 1121
Rehearing Granted

__________________________________________________________________________________

Opinion No.

S167791
Date Filed: November 15, 2010
__________________________________________________________________________________

Court:

Superior
County: Yolo
Judge: Thomas Edward Warriner

__________________________________________________________________________________

Counsel:

Immigration Reform Law Institute, Kris W. Kobach; Ropers, Majeski, Kohn & Bentley and Michael J.
Brady for Plaintiffs and Appellants.

Lawrence J. Joseph for Eagle Forum Education & Legal Defense Fund as Amicus Curiae on behalf of
Plaintiffs and Appellants.

Daniel J. Popeo, Richard A. Stamp; Law Offices of Mark E. Foster and Mark E. Foster for U.S.
Representative Lamar Smith, U.S. Representative Steve King, Washington Legal Foundation and Allied
Educational Foundation as Amici Curiae on behalf of Plaintiffs and Appellants.

Sharon L. Browne and Ralph W. Kasarda for Pacific Legal Foundation as Amicus Curiae on behalf of
Plaintiffs and Appellants.

Charles F. Robinson, Christopher M. Patti, Margaret L. Wu; Howard Rice Nemervoski Canady Falk &
Rabkin, Robert D. Hallman; Folger Levin & Kahn, Crowell & Moring, Ethan P. Schulman and Trina D.
McAlister for Defendants and Respondents The Regents of the University of California and Mark G.
Yudof.

Christine Helwick and Andrea M. Gunn for Defendants and Respondents Board of Trustees of the
California State University and Charles B. Reed.

Edmund G. Brown, Jr., Attorney General, David S. Chaney, Chief Assistant Attorney General, Gordon
Burns, Deputy State Solicitor General, Douglas M. Press, Assistant Attorney General, and Julie Weng-
Gutierrez, Deputy Attorney General, for Defendants and Respondents California Community Colleges and
Chancellor Marshall Drummond.

Multicultural Education, Training and Advocacy (META) Inc., and Peter D. Roos for Californians
Together, The Association of Mexican American Educators and the California Association of Bilingual
Education as Amici Curiae on behalf of Defendants and Respondents.


Page 2 – S167791 – counsel continued

Julie A. Su, Yungsuhn Park, Carmina Ocampo; Bird, Marella, Boxer, Woolpert, Nessim, Drooks &
Lincenberg, Paul S. Chan and Jennifer S. Chang for Asian Pacific American Legal Center and 80 Asian
Pacific American organizations as Amici Curiae on behalf of Defendants and Respondents.

Camille A. Goulet, Kevin D. Jeter, Anne L. Diga and Eric C. Kim for Los Angeles Community College
District as Amicus Curiae on behalf of Defendants and Respondents.

Garcia Calderón Ruíz, Mary T. Hernandez, Cecilia N. Brennan and Virginia Y. Calderón for San
José/Evergreen Community College District as Amicus Curiae on behalf of Defendants and Respondents.

Vanessa Castillo, Carlos Amador, Jonathan Bibriesca, Yenni Diaz, Francisco Bravo and Lourdes Cruz for
Orange County Dream Team as Amicus Curiae on behalf of Defendants and Respondents.

Munger, Tolles & Olson, Bradley S. Phillips, Fred A. Rowley, Jr., Mark R. Yohalem, Gabriel P. Sanchez,;
Lawyers‟ Committee for Civil Rights of the San Francisco Bay Area, Robert Rubin; Mexican American
Legal Defense and Educational Fund, Cynthia Valenzuela, Nicholas Espiritu and Kristina Campbell for
Alicia A., Gloria A., Marcos A., Mildred A., Enrique Boca, Nicole Doe, Collin Campbell, Alex Ortiz,
Linda Lin Qian, Cesar Rivadeneyra, Jennifer Seidenberg, Improving Dreams, Equality, Access and Success
at University of California, Davis, Improving Dreams, Equality, Access and Success of University of
California, Los Angeles and National Immigration Law Center as Amici Curiae on behalf of Defendants
and Respondents.

Stutz Artiano Shinoff & Holtz, Ray J. Artiano and Robert M. Mahlowitz for San Diego Community
College District as Amicus Curiae on behalf of Defendants and Respondents.

Latinojustice PRLDEF, Jose Perez, Jackson Chin; Simpson Thacher & Bartlett, Alexis S. Coll-Very,
George R. Morris and Deanne K. Cevasco for New York State Youth Leadership Council, The New York
State Association for Bilingual Education, New York Latino Research and Resources Network, New York
Immigration Coalition, Long Island Immigrant Alliance, Northern Manhattan Coalition for Immigrant
Rights, Hispanic Resource Center of Larchmont and Mamaroneck, Hispanic Federation, Committee for
Hispanic Children & Families, Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities, Hispanic College Fund,
Hispanic National Bar Association, Asian American Legal Defense & Education, Professional Staff
Congress, California Faculty Association, Dr. Pedro Caban, Dr. Marcelo Suárez-Orozco, Dr. Carola
Suárez-Orozco, Dr. Regina Cortina, Catherine J. Crowley and Dr. Kevin Dougherty as Amici Curiae on
behalf of Defendants and Respondents.

Lee Gelernt, Lucas Guttentag and Linton Joaquin for American Civil Liberties Union, American Civil
Liberties Union of Northern California, American Civil Liberties Union of Southern California, American
Civil Liberties Union of San Diego and Imperial Counties and the National Immigration Law Center as
Amicus Curiae on behalf of Defendants and Respondents.

Thuy Thi Nguyen; School and College Legal Services of California, Virginia A. Riegel and Patrick C.
Wilson for Peralta Community College District as Amicus Curiae on behalf of Defendants and
Respondents.



Counsel who argued in Supreme Court (not intended for publication with opinion):

Kris W. Kobach
Immigration Reform Law Institute
5100 Rockhill Road
Kansas City, KS 64110-2499
(913) 638-5567

Ethan P. Schulman
Crowell & Moring
275 Battery Street, 23rd Floor
San Francisco, CA 94111
(415) 986-2800

Julie Weng-Gutierrez
Deputy Attorney General
1300 I Street, Suite 125
Sacramento, CA 94244-2550
(916) 445-8223


Petition for review after the Court of Appeal reversed the judgment in a civil action. This case includes the following issues: (1) Does Education Code section 68130.5, which authorizes undocumented aliens and other non-residents who attend and graduate from a California high school to pay in-state tuition for post-secondary education, violate 8 United States Code, section 1623 and/or section 1621? (2) Does section 68130.5 violate the rights of non-resident students under federal law in violation of the privileges and immunities clause of the Fourteenth Amendment?

Opinion Information
Date:Citation:Docket Number:Category:Status:
Mon, 11/15/201050 Cal. 4th 1277, 241 P.3d 855, 117 Cal. Rptr. 3d 359S167791Review - Civil Appealsubmitted/opinion due

Parties
1Martinez, Robert (Plaintiff and Appellant)
Represented by Kris W. Kobach
University of Missouri, Kansas City
School of Law
4701 N. 130th Street
Kansas City, KS

2Martinez, Robert (Plaintiff and Appellant)
Represented by Michael J. Brady
Ropers Majeski et al.
1001 Marshall Street
Redwood City, CA

3Alameda, Daniela (Plaintiff and Appellant)
Represented by Michael J. Brady
Ropers Majeski et al.
1001 Marshall Street
Redwood City, CA

4Anderson, Adam (Plaintiff and Appellant)
Represented by Michael J. Brady
Ropers Majeski et al.
1001 Marshall Street
Redwood City, CA

5Bilbray, Brian (Plaintiff and Appellant)
Represented by Michael J. Brady
Ropers Majeski et al.
1001 Marshall Street
Redwood City, CA

6Bilbray, Briana (Plaintiff and Appellant)
Represented by Michael J. Brady
Ropers Majeski et al.
1001 Marshall Street
Redwood City, CA

7Bilbray, Patrick (Plaintiff and Appellant)
Represented by Michael J. Brady
Ropers Majeski et al.
1001 Marshall Street
Redwood City, CA

8Bittner, Matt (Plaintiff and Appellant)
Represented by Michael J. Brady
Ropers Majeski et al.
1001 Marshall Street
Redwood City, CA

9Bulmash, Michal (Plaintiff and Appellant)
Represented by Michael J. Brady
Ropers Majeski et al.
1001 Marshall Street
Redwood City, CA

10Caloustian, Ash (Plaintiff and Appellant)
Represented by Michael J. Brady
Ropers Majeski et al.
1001 Marshall Street
Redwood City, CA

11Dallek, Aaron (Plaintiff and Appellant)
Represented by Michael J. Brady
Ropers Majeski et al.
1001 Marshall Street
Redwood City, CA

12Davault, Jimmy (Plaintiff and Appellant)
Represented by Michael J. Brady
Ropers Majeski et al.
1001 Marshall Street
Redwood City, CA

13Davis, Antwann (Plaintiff and Appellant)
Represented by Michael J. Brady
Ropers Majeski et al.
1001 Marshall Street
Redwood City, CA

14Dennison, Arrington (Plaintiff and Appellant)
Represented by Michael J. Brady
Ropers Majeski et al.
1001 Marshall Street
Redwood City, CA

15Deutsch, James (Plaintiff and Appellant)
Represented by Michael J. Brady
Ropers Majeski et al.
1001 Marshall Street
Redwood City, CA

16Didier, Kellan (Plaintiff and Appellant)
Represented by Michael J. Brady
Ropers Majeski et al.
1001 Marshall Street
Redwood City, CA

17Dozeman, Kyle (Plaintiff and Appellant)
Represented by Michael J. Brady
Ropers Majeski et al.
1001 Marshall Street
Redwood City, CA

18Drury, Demyan (Plaintiff and Appellant)
Represented by Michael J. Brady
Ropers Majeski et al.
1001 Marshall Street
Redwood City, CA

19Goldberg, Dan (Plaintiff and Appellant)
Represented by Michael J. Brady
Ropers Majeski et al.
1001 Marshall Street
Redwood City, CA

20Grant, Emily (Plaintiff and Appellant)
Represented by Michael J. Brady
Ropers Majeski et al.
1001 Marshall Street
Redwood City, CA

21Hammes, David (Plaintiff and Appellant)
Represented by Michael J. Brady
Ropers Majeski et al.
1001 Marshall Street
Redwood City, CA

22Hammes, Mark (Plaintiff and Appellant)
Represented by Michael J. Brady
Ropers Majeski et al.
1001 Marshall Street
Redwood City, CA

23Hammes, Steven (Plaintiff and Appellant)
Represented by Michael J. Brady
Ropers Majeski et al.
1001 Marshall Street
Redwood City, CA

24Hildebrand, Amanda (Plaintiff and Appellant)
Represented by Michael J. Brady
Ropers Majeski et al.
1001 Marshall Street
Redwood City, CA

25Jang, Chaning (Plaintiff and Appellant)
Represented by Michael J. Brady
Ropers Majeski et al.
1001 Marshall Street
Redwood City, CA

26Jelsma, Kathryn (Plaintiff and Appellant)
Represented by Michael J. Brady
Ropers Majeski et al.
1001 Marshall Street
Redwood City, CA

27Kattija-Ari, Suzanne (Plaintiff and Appellant)
Represented by Michael J. Brady
Ropers Majeski et al.
1001 Marshall Street
Redwood City, CA

28Konrad, Joseph (Plaintiff and Appellant)
Represented by Michael J. Brady
Ropers Majeski et al.
1001 Marshall Street
Redwood City, CA

29Kozono, Tim (Plaintiff and Appellant)
Represented by Michael J. Brady
Ropers Majeski et al.
1001 Marshall Street
Redwood City, CA

30Luong, Onson (Plaintiff and Appellant)
Represented by Michael J. Brady
Ropers Majeski et al.
1001 Marshall Street
Redwood City, CA

31Malone-Stratton, Aaron (Plaintiff and Appellant)
Represented by Michael J. Brady
Ropers Majeski et al.
1001 Marshall Street
Redwood City, CA

32McDermott, Mara (Plaintiff and Appellant)
Represented by Michael J. Brady
Ropers Majeski et al.
1001 Marshall Street
Redwood City, CA

33McMahon, Cory (Plaintiff and Appellant)
Represented by Michael J. Brady
Ropers Majeski et al.
1001 Marshall Street
Redwood City, CA

34meguro, Casey (Plaintiff and Appellant)
Represented by Michael J. Brady
Ropers Majeski et al.
1001 Marshall Street
Redwood City, CA

35Nass, Scott (Plaintiff and Appellant)
Represented by Michael J. Brady
Ropers Majeski et al.
1001 Marshall Street
Redwood City, CA

36Rabie, Justin (Plaintiff and Appellant)
Represented by Michael J. Brady
Ropers Majeski et al.
1001 Marshall Street
Redwood City, CA

37Robertson, Corey (Plaintiff and Appellant)
Represented by Michael J. Brady
Ropers Majeski et al.
1001 Marshall Street
Redwood City, CA

38Shea, Peter (Plaintiff and Appellant)
Represented by Michael J. Brady
Ropers Majeski et al.
1001 Marshall Street
Redwood City, CA

39Smith, Justine (Plaintiff and Appellant)
Represented by Michael J. Brady
Ropers Majeski et al.
1001 Marshall Street
Redwood City, CA

40Stratton, Pamela (Plaintiff and Appellant)
Represented by Michael J. Brady
Ropers Majeski et al.
1001 Marshall Street
Redwood City, CA

41Taylor, David (Plaintiff and Appellant)
Represented by Michael J. Brady
Ropers Majeski et al.
1001 Marshall Street
Redwood City, CA

42Tubner, Soleil (Plaintiff and Appellant)
Represented by Michael J. Brady
Ropers Majeski et al.
1001 Marshall Street
Redwood City, CA

43Thomson, Adam (Plaintiff and Appellant)
Represented by Michael J. Brady
Ropers Majeski et al.
1001 Marshall Street
Redwood City, CA

44Regents of the University of California (Defendant and Respondent)
Represented by Andrea Marie Gunn
California State University/Office of General Counsel
401 Golden Shore, 4th Florr
Long Beach, CA

45Regents of the University of California (Defendant and Respondent)
Represented by Christopher M. Patti
University of California, Office of General Counsel
1111 Franklin Street, 8th Floor
Oakland, CA

46Regents of the University of California (Defendant and Respondent)
Represented by Ethan P. Schulman
Crowell & Moring, LLP
275 Battery Street, 23rd Floor
San Francisco, CA

47Board of Governors of the California Community Colleges (Defendant and Respondent)
Represented by Julie Yu-Ping Weng-Gutierrez
Office of the Attorney General
1300 "I" Street, Suite 125
Sacramento, CA

48Drummond, Marshall (Defendant and Respondent)
Represented by Julie Yu-Ping Weng-Gutierrez
Office of the Attorney General
1300 "I" Street, Suite 125
Sacramento, CA

49Reed, Charles B. (Defendant and Respondent)
Represented by Andrea Marie Gunn
Office of the Chancellor
California State University
401 Golden Shore, 4th Floor
Long Beach, CA

50Trustees of the California State University (Defendant and Respondent)
Represented by Andrea Marie Gunn
Office of the Chancellor
California State University
401 Golden Shore, 4th Floor
Long Beach, CA

51Yudof, Mark G. (Defendant and Respondent)
Represented by Andrea Marie Gunn
California State University/Office of General Counsel
401 Golden Shore, 4th Floor
Long Beach, CA

52Yudof, Mark G. (Defendant and Respondent)
Represented by Ethan P. Schulman
Crowell & Moring, LLP
275 Battery Street, 23rd Floor
San Francisco, CA

53A., Alicia (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Bradley S. Phillips
Munger Tolles & Olson, LLP
355 S. Grand Avenue,35th Floor
Los Angeles, CA

54A., Gloria (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Bradley S. Phillips
Munger Tolles & Olson, LLP
355 S. Grand Avenue,35th Floor
Los Angeles, CA

55A., Mildred (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Bradley S. Phillips
Munger Tolles & Olson, LLP
355 S. Grand Avenue,35th Floor
Los Angeles, CA

56A., Marcos (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Bradley S. Phillips
Munger Tolles & Olson, LLP
355 S. Grand Avenue,35th Floor
Los Angeles, CA

57ACLU Foundation of Northern California, Inc. (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Linton Joaquin
National Immigration Law Center
3435 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 2850
Los Angeles, CA

58ACLU Foundation of San Diego & Imperial Counties, Inc. (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Linton Joaquin
National Immigration Law Center
3435 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 2850
Los Angeles, CA

59ACLU Foundation of Southern California, Inc. (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Linton Joaquin
National Immigration Law Center
3435 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 2850
Los Angeles, CA

60Allied Educational Foundation (Amicus curiae)
61American Civil Liberties Union (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Linton Joaquin
National Immigration Law Center
3435 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 2850
Los Angeles, CA

62API Equality - Los Angeles (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

63API Equality - Northern California (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

64Asian American Action Fund (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

65Asian American Bar Association of the Greater Bay Area (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

66Asian American Drug Abuse Program, Inc. (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

67Asian American Justice Center (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

68Asian American Legal Defense & Education Fund (Amicus curiae)
Represented by George Ruben Morris
Simpson Thacher & Bartlett, LLP
2550 Hanover Street
Palo Alto, CA

69Asian Americans for Civil Rights & Egual Equality (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

70Asian & Pacific Islanders California Action Network (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

71Asian Law Caucus (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

72Asian Pacific American Bar Association of Los Angeles County (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

73Asian Pacific American Labor Alliance - Alameda County (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

74Asian Pacific American Labor Alliance - Los Angeles Chapter (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

75Asian Pacific American Legal Center (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

76Asian Pacific Americans for Progress (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

77Asian Pacific Islander American Public Affairs Association (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

78Asian Pacific Islander Legal Outreach (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

79Asian Pacific Islander Parents, Families, Friends etc. (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

80Asian Pacific Islander Youth Promoting Advocacy & Leadership (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

81Asian Pacific Policy & Planning Council (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

82Asian/Pacific Bar Association of Sacramento (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

83Associated Students of Laney College (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

84Association of Mexican American Educators (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Peter D. Roos
META, Inc.
5133 Cochrane Avenue
Oakland, CA

85Bay Area Lawyers for Individual Freedom (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

86Boca, Enrique (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Bradley S. Phillips
Munger Tolles & Olson, LLP
355 S. Grand Avenue,35th Floor
Los Angeles, CA

87Caban, Pedro (Amicus curiae)
Represented by George Ruben Morris
Simpson Thacher & Bartlett, LLP
2550 Hanover Street
Palo Alto, CA

88California Association for Asian & Pacific American Ed. (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

89California Association for Bilingual Education (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Peter D. Roos
META, Inc.
5133 Cochrane Avenue
Oakland, CA

90California Faculty Association (Amicus curiae)
Represented by George Ruben Morris
Simpson Thacher & Bartlett, LLP
2550 Hanover Street
Palo Alto, CA

91Californians for Justice Education Fund (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

92Californians Together (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Peter D. Roos
META, Inc.
5133 Cochrane Avenue
Oakland, CA

93Campbell, Collin (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Bradley S. Phillips
Munger Tolles & Olson, LLP
355 S. Grand Avenue,35th Floor
Los Angeles, CA

94Chinese American Citizens Alliance (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

95Chinese for Affirmative Action (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

96Chinese Progressive Association of San Gabriel Valley (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

97Committee for Hispanic Children & Families (Amicus curiae)
Represented by George Ruben Morris
Simpson Thacher & Bartlett, LLP
2550 Hanover Street
Palo Alto, CA

98Cortina, Regina (Amicus curiae)
Represented by George Ruben Morris
Simpson Thacher & Bartlett, LLP
2550 Hanover Street
Palo Alto, CA

99Cotina, Kevin (Amicus curiae)
Represented by George Ruben Morris
Simpson Thacher & Bartlett, LLP
2550 Hanover Street
Palo Alto, CA

100Crowley, Catherine (Amicus curiae)
Represented by George Ruben Morris
Simpson Thacher & Bartlett, LLP
2550 Hanover Street
Palo Alto, CA

101De Anza College Asian Pacific American Leadership Institute (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

102Doe, Nicole (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Bradley S. Phillips
Munger Tolles & Olson, LLP
355 S. Grand Avenue,35th Floor
Los Angeles, CA

103Dougherty, Kevin (Amicus curiae)
Represented by George Ruben Morris
Simpson Thacher & Bartlett, LLP
2550 Hanover Street
Palo Alto, CA

104Eagle Forum Education & Legal Defense Fund (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Lawrence John Joseph
1250 Connecticut Avenue., NW, Suite 200
1250 Connecticut Avenue., NW, Suite 200
Washington, DC

105Family Bridges, Inc. (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

106Filipino Bar Association of Northern California (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

107Filipino Community Center (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

108Filipinos for Affirmative Action (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

109Guam Communications Network (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

110Hispanic Association of Colleges & Universities (Amicus curiae)
Represented by George Ruben Morris
Simpson Thacher & Bartlett, LLP
2550 Hanover Street
Palo Alto, CA

111Hispanic College Fund (Amicus curiae)
Represented by George Ruben Morris
Simpson Thacher & Bartlett, LLP
2550 Hanover Street
Palo Alto, CA

112Hispanic Federation (Amicus curiae)
Represented by George Ruben Morris
Simpson Thacher & Bartlett, LLP
2550 Hanover Street
Palo Alto, CA

113Hispanic National Bar Association (Amicus curiae)
Represented by George Ruben Morris
Simpson Thacher & Bartlett, LLP
2550 Hanover Street
Palo Alto, CA

114Hispanic Resource Center of Larchmont & Mamaroneck (Amicus curiae)
Represented by George Ruben Morris
Simpson Thacher & Bartlett, LLP
2550 Hanover Street
Palo Alto, CA

115Improving Dreams, Equality, Access & Success at U.C. Davis (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Bradley S. Phillips
Munger Tolles & Olson, LLP
355 S. Grand Avenue,35th Floor
Los Angeles, CA

116Improving Dreams, Equality, Access & Success at UCLA (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Bradley S. Phillips
Munger Tolles & Olson, LLP
355 S. Grand Avenue,35th Floor
Los Angeles, CA

117Japanese American Bar Association of Greater Los Angeles (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

118K. W. Lee Center for Leadership (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

119King, U. S. Representative Steve (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Mark Edward Foster
Law Offices of Mark E. Foster
303 Almaden Blvd., Ste. 500
San Jose, CA

120Korean American Bar Association of Northern California (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

121Korean American Bar Association of Southern California (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

122Korean American Coalition - Los Angeles (Amicus curiae)
123Korean Resource Center (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

124Koreatown Immigrant Workers Alliance (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

125Little Tokyo Service Center (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

126Liwanag Kultural Center (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

127Long Island Immigration Alliance (Amicus curiae)
Represented by George Ruben Morris
Simpson Thacher & Bartlett, LLP
2550 Hanover Street
Palo Alto, CA

128Los Angeles Community College District (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Eric Choi Kim
Los Angeles Community College District
770 Wilshire Blvd., 9th Floor
Los Angeles, CA

129Loyola Law School South Asian Law Students Association (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

130Mission Graduates (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

131National Alliance for Filipino Concerns, Northern California (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

132National Asian Pacific American Women's Forum (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

133National Center for Lesbian Rights (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

134National Immigration Law Center (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Linton Joaquin
National Immigration Law Center
3435 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 2850
Los Angeles, CA

135National Korean American Service & Education Consortium (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

136New York State Association for Bilingual Education (Amicus curiae)
Represented by George Ruben Morris
Simpson Thacher & Bartlett, LLP
2550 Hanover Street
Palo Alto, CA

137New York Immigration Coalition (Amicus curiae)
Represented by George Ruben Morris
Simpson Thacher & Bartlett, LLP
2550 Hanover Street
Palo Alto, CA

138New York Latino Research & Resources Network (Amicus curiae)
Represented by George Ruben Morris
Simpson Thacher & Bartlett, LLP
2550 Hanover Street
Palo Alto, CA

139New York State Youth Leadership Council (Amicus curiae)
Represented by George Ruben Morris
Simpson Thacher & Bartlett, LLP
2550 Hanover Street
Palo Alto, CA

140Nikkei for Civil Rights & Redress (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

141Northern Manhattan Coalition for Immigration Rights (Amicus curiae)
Represented by George Ruben Morris
Simpson Thacher & Bartlett, LLP
2550 Hanover Street
Palo Alto, CA

142Orange County Asian American Bar Association (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

143Orange County Asian & Pacific Islander Community Alliance (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

144Orange County Dream Team (Amicus curiae)
P.O. Box 1855
Santa Ana, CA 92702

Represented by Belinda Escobosa Helzer
ACLU Foundation of Southern California, Inc.
2140 W. Chapman Avenue, Suite 209
Orange, CA

145Organization of Chinese Americans - Greater Los Angeles (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

146Organization of Chinese Americans - Orange County (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

147Ortiz, Alex (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Bradley S. Phillips
Munger Tolles & Olson, LLP
355 S. Grand Avenue,35th Floor
Los Angeles, CA

148Pacific Asian Couseling Services (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

149Pacific Legal Foundation (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Sharon L. Browne
Pacific Legal Foundation
3900 Lennane Drive, Suite 200
Sacramento, CA

150Pacific Legal Foundation (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Ralph William Kasarda
Pacific Legal Foundation
3900 Lennane Drive, Suite 200
Sacramento, CA

151Pan Asian Lawyers of San Diego (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

152Peralta Community College District (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Patrick Charles Wilson
School and College Legal Services of California
5350 Skylane Boulevard
Santa Rosa, CA

153Philippine American Bar Association (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

154Pilipino Workers' Center (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

155Professional Staff Congress (Amicus curiae)
Represented by George Ruben Morris
Simpson Thacher & Bartlett, LLP
2550 Hanover Street
Palo Alto, CA

156Quin, Linda Lin (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Bradley S. Phillips
Munger Tolles & Olson, LLP
355 S. Grand Avenue,35th Floor
Los Angeles, CA

157Rivadeneyra, Cesar (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Bradley S. Phillips
Munger Tolles & Olson, LLP
355 S. Grand Avenue,35th Floor
Los Angeles, CA

158San Diego Community College District (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Ray James Artiano
Stutz Artiano Shinoff & Holtz, APC
2488 Historic Decatur Road, Suite 200
San Diego, CA

159San Jose/Evergreen Community College District (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Mary Teresa Hernandez
Garcia Calderon & Ruiz LLP
50 W San Fernando St Ste 330
San Jose, CA

160Santa Clara University School of Law Asian Pacific Students (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

161Santa Clara University School of Law Pilipino American (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

162Seidenberg, Jennifer (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Bradley S. Phillips
Munger Tolles & Olson, LLP
355 S. Grand Avenue,35th Floor
Los Angeles, CA

163Sikh Coalition (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

164Smith, U. S. Representative Lamar (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Mark Edward Foster
Law Offices of Mark E. Foster
303 Almaden Blvd., Suite 500
San Jose, CA

165South Asian Network (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

166Southeast Asian Community Alliance (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

167Southern California Chinese Lawyers' Association (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

168Stanford Asian American Activism Committee (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

169Suarez-Orozco, Marcelo (Amicus curiae)
Represented by George Ruben Morris
Simpson Thacher & Bartlett, LLP
2550 Hanover Street
Palo Alto, CA

170Thai Community Development Center (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

171U.C. Berkeley School of Law Asian American Law Journal (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

172U.C. Berkeley School of Law Asian Pacific Law Students (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

173U.C. Davis Asian American Association (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

174U.C. Hastings College of Law Asian Pacific American Students (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

175U.C. Irvine Asian Pacific Student Association (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

176U.C. Los Angeles Asian Pacific American Law Journal (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

177U.C. Los Angeles Asian Pacific Coalition (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

178U.C. Los Angeles Asian Pacific Islander Law Student Assn. (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

179U.C. Los Angeles Center for Labor Research & Education (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

180U.C. Los Angeles Critical Asian & Pacific Islander Students (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

181U.C. Los Angeles Nikkei Student Union (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

182U.C. Los Angeles Samahang Pilipino (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

183United Cambodian Community (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

184Vietnamese American Bar Association of Southern California (Amicus curiae)
Represented by Jennifer S. Chang
Bird Marella et al.
1875 Century Park East, 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, CA

185Washington Legal Foundation (Amicus curiae)

Opinion Authors
OpinionJustice Ming W. Chin

Dockets
Oct 27 20082nd petition for review filed
  The Regents of the Univ. of Callifornia and Robert C. Dynes, resps. Ethan P. Schulman, counsel
Oct 27 20083rd petition for review filed
  Board of Governors etc., et al., resp. Julie Weng-Gutierrez, DAG
Oct 27 2008Petition for review filed
  Robert Martinez, et al., appellants by Michael J. Brady, counsel
Oct 27 2008Record requested
 
Oct 29 2008Received Court of Appeal record
  one doghouse
Nov 3 2008Application to appear as counsel pro hac vice (pre-grant)
  Robert Martinez counsel for aplt. submits this motion for Pro Hac Vice admission for Kris W. Kobach to appear for appellants in this case only.
Nov 14 2008Answer to petition for review filed
  counsel for aplts. (Martinez)
Nov 14 2008Answer to petition for review filed
  counsel for Regents of Univ. of Calif. and R. Dynes.
Nov 17 2008Answer to petition for review filed
  counsel for resp. Board of Governor, et al.
Nov 19 2008Filed:
  Errata to Community Colleges' Answer to Plaintiffs' Petition for Review by Julie Weng-Gutierrez, cnsl for rspts Community Colleges
Nov 24 2008Reply to answer to petition filed
  Community Colleges, defendants and respondents Julie Weng-Gutierrez, Supv. Dep. A.G.
Nov 24 2008Reply to answer to petition filed
  counsel for resps. Regents of Univ. of Calif., and Robert C. Dynes.
Dec 1 2008Received:
  counsel for defts. and resps. Certif. of Compliance word count.
Dec 23 2008Petition for review granted (civil case)
  The application of Kris Kobach to appear as counsel pro hac vice is granted. The petition for review filed by respondents The Regents of the University of California and Robert C. Dynes is granted. The petition for review filed by respondents Board of Governors of the California Community Colleges, and Chancellor Marshall Drummond is granted. The petition for review filed by appellants Robert Martinez et al. is denied. Werdegar, J., was absent and did not participate. Votes: George, C.J., Kennard, Baxter, Chin, Moreno, and Corrigan, JJ.
Jan 8 2009Certification of interested entities or persons filed
  counsel for resps. (Regents of the Univ. of Calif.)
Jan 9 2009Request for extension of time filed
  by The Board of Governors of the California Community Colleges and Marshall drummond, Respondents, requesting 30-day extension to and including February 23, 2009, to file respondents' opening brief on the merits. by Julie Weng-Gutierrez, counsel
Jan 9 2009Request for extension of time filed
  counsel for respondents requests extension of time to February 23, 2009, to file the opening brief on the merits.
Jan 13 2009Certification of interested entities or persons filed
  counsel for aplt.
Jan 13 2009Certification of interested entities or persons filed
  counsel for resp. Calif. State Univ., Office of the General Counsel
Jan 14 2009Extension of time granted
  On application of respondents, The Board of Governors of the California Community Colleges and Chancellor Michael Drummond, and good cause appearing, it is ordered that the time to serve and file the respondents' opening brief on the merits is hereby extended to and including February 23, 2009.
Jan 14 2009Extension of time granted
  On application of respondents and good cause appearing, it is ordered that the time to serve and file the opening brief on the merits is extended to and including February 23, 2009.
Jan 20 2009Certification of interested entities or persons filed
  counsel for resp. Board of Governors, Calif. Comm. Colleges
Jan 29 2009Motion filed (non-AA)
  counsel for resp. (Regents of the Univ. of Calif. and Robert C. Dynes) to Substitute Party on Appeal. Mark G. Yudof, current president for resp. Robert C. Dynes, who formerly served in that position.
Feb 5 2009Order filed
  The motion for substitution of party on appeal, filed January 29, 2009 is granted. (Cal. Rules of Court, rule 8.36(a).)
Feb 19 2009Request for extension of time filed
  Counsel for resps. (Regents of the Univ. of Calif.) requests extension of time to 3-25-2009, to file the opening brief on the merits.
Feb 20 2009Request for extension of time filed
  Counsel for resps. (Brd. of Governors of the CA Comm. Colleges and Marshall Drummond) requests extension of time to 3-25-2009 to file the opening brief on the merits.
Feb 24 2009Extension of time granted
  On application of respondents and good cause appearing, it is ordering that the time to serve and file the opening brief on the merits is extended to and including March 25, 2009.
Feb 24 2009Extension of time granted
  On application of respondents and good cause appearing, it is ordered that the time to serve and file the opening brief on the merits is extended to and including March 25, 2009.
Mar 25 2009Opening brief on the merits filed
  counsel for resp. (Calif. Comm. Colleges & Chancellor M. Drummond)
Mar 25 2009Opening brief on the merits filed
  counsel for resp. (Regents of the Univ. of Calif. and Mark G. Yudof)
Mar 25 2009Request for judicial notice filed (granted case)
  counsel for resps. (Regents of the Univ. of Calif. and Mark G. Yudof)
Apr 10 2009Request for extension of time filed
  counsel for aplts. requests ext. of time to 5-25-09 to file the answer brief on the merits.
Apr 14 2009Opposition filed
Plaintiff and Appellant: Martinez, RobertAttorney: Michael J. Brady   counsel for aplts. (Martinez) to Request for Judicial Notice
Apr 15 2009Extension of time granted
  On application of appellant and good cause appearing, it is ordered that the time to serve and file the answer brief on the merits is extended to and including May 25, 2009.
Apr 16 2009Filed:
  counsel for resp. applcation for leave to file reply and reply in support of Motion for Judicial Notice.
May 15 2009Request for extension of time filed
  counsel for appellant requests extension of time to June 24, 2009, to file the answer brief on the merits.
May 26 2009Extension of time granted
  On application of appellant and good cause appearing, it is ordered that the time to serve and file the answer brief on the merits is extended to and including June 24, 2009.
Jun 24 2009Application to file over-length brief filed
 
Jun 24 2009Received:
  from counsel for aplts. over-sized answer brief on the merits.
Jun 26 2009Answer brief on the merits filed
Plaintiff and Appellant: Martinez, RobertAttorney: Michael J. Brady   w/permission
Jul 7 2009Application to file amicus curiae brief filed
  Californians Together, The Association of Mexican American Educators, and the Calif. Association of Bilingual Education (non-party)
Jul 9 2009Request for extension of time filed
  Counsel for respondents Regents of the Univ. of Calif. requests a 43-day extension of time to file the reply brief on the merits.
Jul 10 2009Permission to file amicus curiae brief granted
  The application of Californians Together, The Association of Mexican Educators, and the California Association of Bilingual Education for permission to file an amicus curiae brief in support of respondent is hereby granted. Any party may file a single consolidated answer to all amicus curiae briefs within 20 days after the last date that an application to file an amicus curiae brief may be filed under rule 8.520(f)(2).
Jul 10 2009Amicus curiae brief filed
Amicus curiae: Californians TogetherAttorney: Peter D. Roos   Californians Together, The Association of Mexican Educators, and the California Association of Bilingual Education
Jul 13 2009Extension of time granted
  On application of respondents, Regents of the University of California, and good cause appearing, it is ordered that the time to serve and file the reply brief on the merits is extended to and including August 28, 2009.
Jul 9 2009Request for extension of time filed
  by Board of California Community Colleges, requests until August 28, 2009, to reply brief on the merits, by Julie Weng-Gutierrez, supervising deputy attorney general.
Jul 14 2009Extension of time granted
  On application of Board of California Community Colleges, respondent, and good cause appearing, it is ordered that the time to serve and file the Reply Brief on the Merits is extended to and including August 28, 2009.
Jul 17 2009Received:
  Letter dated July 15, 2009, regarding correcting the cover for the Answer Brief on the Merits, Robert Martinez, et al., by Michael J. Brady, counsel.
Aug 28 2009Received:
  from counsel for resp. over-sized reply brief on the merits.
Aug 28 2009Application to file over-length brief filed
 
Aug 31 2009Application to file amicus curiae brief filed
  U.S. Rep. Lamar Smith, et al. in support of appellants.
Aug 28 2009Reply brief filed (case not yet fully briefed)
Defendant and Respondent: Board of Governors of the California Community CollegesAttorney: Julie Yu-Ping Weng-Gutierrez  
Sep 3 2009Application to file over-length brief granted
  The application of respondents for permission to file an over-length reply brief is granted.
Sep 3 2009Permission to file amicus curiae brief granted
  The application of U.S. Representative Lamar Smith, U.S. Representative Steve King, Washington Legal Foundation and Allied Educational Foundation is hereby granted. Answer thereto may be served and filed by any party within 20 days of the filing of the brief.
Sep 3 2009Amicus curiae brief filed
Amicus curiae: Smith, U. S. Representative LamarAttorney: Mark Edward Foster   U. S. Representative Lamar Smith, and U. S. Representative Steve King, et al.
Sep 3 2009Reply brief filed (case not yet fully briefed)
Defendant and Respondent: Regents of the University of CaliforniaAttorney: Ethan P. Schulman  
Sep 24 2009Application to file amicus curiae brief filed
  Asian Pacific American Legal Center and 80 Asian Pacific American Organizations in support of respondents.
Sep 25 2009Application to file amicus curiae brief filed
  for Pacific Legal Foundation, in support of plaintiff and appellant, by Ralph W. Kasarda, counsel
Sep 25 2009Application to file amicus curiae brief filed
 
Sep 28 2009Permission to file amicus curiae brief granted
  The application of Pacific Legal Foundation for permission to file an amicus curiae brief in support of appellant is hereby granted. An answer thereto may be served and filed by any party within 20 days of the filing of the brief.
Sep 28 2009Amicus curiae brief filed
Amicus curiae: Pacific Legal FoundationAttorney: Ralph William Kasarda  
Sep 25 2009Application to file amicus curiae brief filed
  Los Angeles Community College District in support of respondents.
Oct 1 2009Permission to file amicus curiae brief granted
  The application of Los Angeles Community College District for permission to file an amicus curiae brief in support of respondents is hereby granted. Answer thereto may be served and filed by any party within 20 days of the filing of the brief.
Oct 1 2009Amicus curiae brief filed
Amicus curiae: Los Angeles Community College DistrictAttorney: Eric Choi Kim   Los Angeles Community College District in support of respondents.
Oct 1 2009Permission to file amicus curiae brief granted
  The application of Asian Pacific American Center and 80 Asian Pacific American Organizations for permission to file an amicus curiae brief in support of respondents is hereby granted. An answer thereto may be served and filed by any party within 20 days of the filing of the brief.
Oct 1 2009Amicus curiae brief filed
Amicus curiae: Asian Pacific American Legal CenterAttorney: Jennifer S. Chang   Asian Pacific American Legal Center and 80 Asian Pacific American Organizations in support of respondents.
Oct 1 2009Application to file amicus curiae brief filed
  Orange County Dream Team in support of respondents.
Oct 2 2009Permission to file amicus curiae brief granted
  The application of Orange County Dream Team for permission to file an amicus curiae brief in support of respondents is hereby granted. An answer thereto may be served and filed by any party within 20 days of the filing of the brief.
Oct 2 2009Amicus curiae brief filed
Amicus curiae: Orange County Dream Team   Orange County Dream Team in support of respondents.
Oct 2 2009Application to file amicus curiae brief filed
  Peralta Community College District
Oct 2 2009Application to file amicus curiae brief filed
  San Jose/Evergreen Community College District in support of respondents.
Oct 5 2009Application to file amicus curiae brief filed
 
Oct 5 2009Application to file amicus curiae brief filed
  American Civil Liberties Union, American Civil Liberties Union of Northern California et al. in support of respondents.
Oct 5 2009Application to file amicus curiae brief filed
  Alicia A., Gloria A., et al., in support of respondents.
Oct 5 2009Application to file amicus curiae brief filed
  San Diego Community College District in support of Respondents.
Oct 5 2009Application to file amicus curiae brief filed
  New York State Youth Leadership Council, et al., in support of respondents
Oct 6 2009Application to file amicus curiae brief filed
  Eagle Forum Education & Legal Defense Fund in support of Appellant. / CRC 8.25(b).
Oct 14 2009Permission to file amicus curiae brief granted
  The application of San Jose/Evergreen Community College District for permission to file an amicus curiae brief in support of respondents is hereby granted. An answer thereto may be served and filed by any party within 20 days of the filing of the brief.
Oct 14 2009Amicus curiae brief filed
Amicus curiae: San Jose/Evergreen Community College DistrictAttorney: Mary Teresa Hernandez   San Jose/Evergreen Community College District.
Oct 14 2009Permission to file amicus curiae brief granted
  The application of San Diego Community College District for permission to file an amicus curiae brief in support of respondents is hereby granted. An answer thereto may be served and filed by any party within 20 days of the filling of the brief.
Oct 14 2009Amicus curiae brief filed
Amicus curiae: San Diego Community College DistrictAttorney: Ray James Artiano   San Diego Community College District.
Oct 14 2009Permission to file amicus curiae brief granted
  The application of Peralta Community College District for permission to file an amicus curiae brief in support of respondents is hereby granted. An answer thereto may be served and filed by any party within 20 days of the filing of the brief.
Oct 14 2009Amicus curiae brief filed
Amicus curiae: Peralta Community College DistrictAttorney: Patrick Charles Wilson   Peralta Community College District.
Oct 14 2009Permission to file amicus curiae brief granted
  The application of Eagle Forum Education & Legal Defense Fund for permission to file an amicus curiae brief in support of appellant is hereby granted. An answer thereto may be served and filed by any party within 20 days of the filing of the brief.
Oct 14 2009Amicus curiae brief filed
Amicus curiae: Eagle Forum Education & Legal Defense FundAttorney: Lawrence John Joseph   Eagle Forum Education & Legal Defense Fund.
Oct 14 2009Permission to file amicus curiae brief granted
  The application of Alicia A., Gloria A., Marcos A., Mildred A., Enrique Boca. Nicole Doe, Collin Campbell, Alex Ortiz, Linda Lin Quian, Cesar Rivandeneyra, Jennifer Seidenberg, Improving Dream, Quality, Equality, Access and Success of U.C. Davis, and Improving Dream, Equality, Access and Success of UCLA for permission to file an amicus curiae brief in support of respondents is hereby granted. An answer thereto may be served and filed by any party within 20 days of the filing of the brief.
Oct 14 2009Amicus curiae brief filed
Amicus curiae: A., AliciaAttorney: Bradley S. Phillips   Alicia A., and Gloria A., et al.
Oct 14 2009Permission to file amicus curiae brief granted
  The application of American Civil Liberties Union, American Civil Liberties Union of Northern California, American Civil Liberties Union of Southern, American Civil Liberties Union of San Diego and Imperial Couinties, and The National Immigration Law Center for permission to file an amicus curiae brief in support of Respondents, is hereby granted. An answer thereto may be served and filed by any party within twenty days of the filing of the brief.
Oct 14 2009Amicus curiae brief filed
Amicus curiae: American Civil Liberties UnionAttorney: Linton Joaquin   American Civil Liberties Union, American Civil Liberties Union of Northern California, et al.
Oct 14 2009Permission to file amicus curiae brief granted
  The application of New York State Youth Leadership Council, The New York State Association for Bilingual Education, New York Latino Research and Resources Network, New York Immigration Coalition, Long Island Immigration Alliance, Northern Manhattan Coalition for Immigrant Rights, Hispanic Resource Center of Larchmont and Mamaroneck, Hispanic Federation, Committee for Hispanic Children & Families, Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universites, Hispanic College Fund, Hispanic National Bar Association, Asian Ameircan Legal Defense & Education, Professional Staff Congress, California Faculty Association, Dr. Pedro Caban, Dr. Marcelo Suarez-Orozco, Dr. Carola Suarez-Orozco, Dr. Regina Cortina, Catherine J.Crowley, and Dr. Kevin Cortina for permission to file an amicus curiae brief in support of The Regents of the University of California, defendants and respondents is hereby granted. An answer thereto may be served and filed by any party within 20 days of the filing of the brief.
Oct 14 2009Amicus curiae brief filed
Amicus curiae: New York State Youth Leadership CouncilAttorney: George Ruben Morris   New York State Youth Leadership Council, et al.
Oct 20 2009Request for extension of time filed
  Counsel for aplts. requests extension of time to November 3, 2009, to file a single response to all amicus curiae brief.
Oct 20 2009Received:
  from counsel for respondents, (U.C. Regents of Calif.) letter in response to appellants request for extension of time.
Oct 22 2009Extension of time granted
  On application of appellants and good cause appearing, it ordered that the time to serve and file the single response to all amicus curiae briefs is extended to and including November 3, 2009.
Nov 3 2009Response to amicus curiae brief filed
Defendant and Respondent: Regents of the University of CaliforniaAttorney: Ethan P. Schulman   (consolidated answer to amicus curiae briefs)
Nov 3 2009Application to file over-length brief filed
  counsel for aplts. R. Martinez, et al.
Nov 3 2009Received:
  from counsel for aplts. (Martinez) over-sized response to nine a/c briefs.
Nov 4 2009Response to amicus curiae brief filed
Plaintiff and Appellant: Martinez, RobertAttorney: Michael J. Brady   (w/permission consolidated answer to nine amicus curiae briefs)
Nov 3 2009Response to amicus curiae brief filed
Defendant and Respondent: Board of Governors of the California Community CollegesAttorney: Julie Yu-Ping Weng-Gutierrez   (to all amicus curiae briefs)
Dec 9 2009Change of contact information filed for:
  Ethan Schulman, counsel for resps. Regents of the Univ. of Calif. and Mark G. Yudof.
Feb 5 2010Received:
  counsel for resp. (People), Julie Weng-Gutierrez Notice of Unavailability for Oral Argument on the dates of April and May 2010, due to maternity leave.
Sep 7 2010Case ordered on calendar
  to be argued Tuesday, October 5, 2010, at 9:00 a.m., in Fresno (at Court of Appeal, Fifth Appellate District, 2424 Ventura Street)
Sep 14 2010Request for judicial notice granted
  Respondent's motion for judicial notice, filed on March 25, 2009, is granted.
Sep 17 2010Filed:
  Letter from Ethan P. Schulman, counsel for respondents Regents of the University of California et al., requesting to divide oral argument time equally with respondents California Community Colleges et al.
Sep 17 2010Filed:
  Letter from Deputy Attorney General Julie Weng-Gutierrez, counsel for respondents California Community Colleges et al., requesting to divide oral argument time equally with respondents Regents of the University of California et al.
Sep 21 2010Request for extended media coverage filed
  by the Fresno Bee
Sep 21 2010Order filed
  The request of counsel for respondents in the above-referenced cause to allow two counsel to argue on behalf of respondents at oral argument is hereby granted. The request of respondents to allocate to Regents of the University of California et al. 15 minutes and Board of Governors of the California Community Colleges et al. 15 minutes of respondents' 30-minute allotted time for oral argument is granted.
Sep 22 2010Request for extended media coverage granted
  The request for extended media coverage, filed by the Fresno Bee on October 5, 2010, is granted, subject to the conditions set forth in rule 1.150, California Rules of Court.
Sep 22 2010Supplemental brief filed
Plaintiff and Appellant: Martinez, RobertAttorney: Michael J. Brady Plaintiff and Appellant: Alameda, DanielaAttorney: Michael J. Brady Plaintiff and Appellant: Anderson, AdamAttorney: Michael J. Brady Plaintiff and Appellant: Bilbray, BrianAttorney: Michael J. Brady Plaintiff and Appellant: Bilbray, BrianaAttorney: Michael J. Brady Plaintiff and Appellant: Bilbray, PatrickAttorney: Michael J. Brady Plaintiff and Appellant: Bittner, MattAttorney: Michael J. Brady Plaintiff and Appellant: Bulmash, MichalAttorney: Michael J. Brady Plaintiff and Appellant: Caloustian, AshAttorney: Michael J. Brady Plaintiff and Appellant: Dallek, AaronAttorney: Michael J. Brady Plaintiff and Appellant: Davault, Jimmy, IIIAttorney: Michael J. Brady Plaintiff and Appellant: Davis, AntwannAttorney: Michael J. Brady Plaintiff and Appellant: Dennison, ArringtonAttorney: Michael J. Brady Plaintiff and Appellant: Drury, DemyanAttorney: Michael J. Brady Plaintiff and Appellant: Deutsch, JamesAttorney: Michael J. Brady Plaintiff and Appellant: Didier, KellanAttorney: Michael J. Brady Plaintiff and Appellant: Dozeman, KyleAttorney: Michael J. Brady Plaintiff and Appellant: Goldberg, DanAttorney: Michael J. Brady Plaintiff and Appellant: Grant, EmilyAttorney: Michael J. Brady Plaintiff and Appellant: Hammes, DavidAttorney: Michael J. Brady Plaintiff and Appellant: Hammes, MarkAttorney: Michael J. Brady Plaintiff and Appellant: Hammes, StevenAttorney: Michael J. Brady Plaintiff and Appellant: Hildebrand, AmandaAttorney: Michael J. Brady Plaintiff and Appellant: Jang, ChaningAttorney: Michael J. Brady Plaintiff and Appellant: Jelsma, KathrynAttorney: Michael J. Brady Plaintiff and Appellant: Kattija-Ari, SuzanneAttorney: Michael J. Brady Plaintiff and Appellant: Konrad, JosephAttorney: Michael J. Brady Plaintiff and Appellant: Kozono, TimAttorney: Michael J. Brady Plaintiff and Appellant: Luong, OnsonAttorney: Michael J. Brady Plaintiff and Appellant: Malone-Stratton, AaronAttorney: Michael J. Brady Plaintiff and Appellant: McDermott, MaraAttorney: Michael J. Brady Plaintiff and Appellant: McMahon, CoryAttorney: Michael J. Brady Plaintiff and Appellant: meguro, CaseyAttorney: Michael J. Brady Plaintiff and Appellant: Nass, ScottAttorney: Michael J. Brady Plaintiff and Appellant: Rabie, JustinAttorney: Michael J. Brady Plaintiff and Appellant: Robertson, CoreyAttorney: Michael J. Brady Plaintiff and Appellant: Shea, PeterAttorney: Michael J. Brady Plaintiff and Appellant: Smith, JustineAttorney: Michael J. Brady Plaintiff and Appellant: Stratton, PamelaAttorney: Michael J. Brady Plaintiff and Appellant: Taylor, DavidAttorney: Michael J. Brady Plaintiff and Appellant: Tubner, SoleilAttorney: Michael J. Brady Plaintiff and Appellant: Thomson, AdamAttorney: Michael J. Brady   Letter dated September 21, 2010, from appellants, citing authorities relevant to issues presented in case; by Michael J. Brady, counsel.
Sep 24 2010Supplemental brief filed
Defendant and Respondent: Regents of the University of CaliforniaAttorney: Ethan P. Schulman Defendant and Respondent: Yudof, Mark G.Attorney: Ethan P. Schulman  
Sep 28 2010Note: Mail returned and re-sent
  mail re-sent to address listed at State Bar website.
Oct 5 2010Cause argued and submitted
 
Nov 12 2010Notice of forthcoming opinion posted
  To be filed on Monday, November 15, 2010 at 10 a.m.

Briefs
Mar 25 2009Opening brief on the merits filed
 
Mar 25 2009Opening brief on the merits filed
 
Jun 26 2009Answer brief on the merits filed
Plaintiff and Appellant: Martinez, RobertAttorney: Michael J. Brady  
Jul 10 2009Amicus curiae brief filed
Amicus curiae: Californians TogetherAttorney: Peter D. Roos  
Aug 28 2009Reply brief filed (case not yet fully briefed)
Defendant and Respondent: Board of Governors of the California Community CollegesAttorney: Julie Yu-Ping Weng-Gutierrez  
Sep 3 2009Amicus curiae brief filed
Amicus curiae: Smith, U. S. Representative LamarAttorney: Mark Edward Foster  
Sep 3 2009Reply brief filed (case not yet fully briefed)
Defendant and Respondent: Regents of the University of CaliforniaAttorney: Ethan P. Schulman  
Sep 28 2009Amicus curiae brief filed
Amicus curiae: Pacific Legal FoundationAttorney: Ralph William Kasarda  
Oct 1 2009Amicus curiae brief filed
Amicus curiae: Los Angeles Community College DistrictAttorney: Eric Choi Kim  
Oct 1 2009Amicus curiae brief filed
Amicus curiae: Asian Pacific American Legal CenterAttorney: Jennifer S. Chang  
Oct 2 2009Amicus curiae brief filed
Amicus curiae: Orange County Dream Team  
Oct 14 2009Amicus curiae brief filed
Amicus curiae: San Jose/Evergreen Community College DistrictAttorney: Mary Teresa Hernandez  
Oct 14 2009Amicus curiae brief filed
Amicus curiae: San Diego Community College DistrictAttorney: Ray James Artiano  
Oct 14 2009Amicus curiae brief filed
Amicus curiae: Peralta Community College DistrictAttorney: Patrick Charles Wilson  
Oct 14 2009Amicus curiae brief filed
Amicus curiae: Eagle Forum Education & Legal Defense FundAttorney: Lawrence John Joseph  
Oct 14 2009Amicus curiae brief filed
Amicus curiae: A., AliciaAttorney: Bradley S. Phillips  
Oct 14 2009Amicus curiae brief filed
Amicus curiae: American Civil Liberties UnionAttorney: Linton Joaquin  
Oct 14 2009Amicus curiae brief filed
Amicus curiae: New York State Youth Leadership CouncilAttorney: George Ruben Morris  
Nov 3 2009Response to amicus curiae brief filed
Defendant and Respondent: Regents of the University of CaliforniaAttorney: Ethan P. Schulman  
Nov 4 2009Response to amicus curiae brief filed
Plaintiff and Appellant: Martinez, RobertAttorney: Michael J. Brady  
Nov 3 2009Response to amicus curiae brief filed
Defendant and Respondent: Board of Governors of the California Community CollegesAttorney: Julie Yu-Ping Weng-Gutierrez  
Brief Downloads
application/pdf icon
9-respondents-community-colleges-chancellor-marshall-drummond-opening-brief-on-the-merits.pdf (401046 bytes) - Defendant (Community Colleges) opening merits brief
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10-respondents-regents-of-the-univ-of-ca-mark-yudof-opening-brief-on-the-merits.pdf (664447 bytes) - Defendant (Regents) opening merits brief
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11-appellants-robert-martinez-answer-brief-on-the-merits.pdf (896547 bytes) - Plaintiff's answer merits brief
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12-respondents-community-colleges-chancellor-marshall-drummond-reply-brief-on-the-merits.pdf (300828 bytes) - Defendant (Community Colleges) reply merits brief
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13-respondents-regents-of-the-univ-of-ca-mark-yudof-reply-brief-on-the-merits.pdf (558227 bytes) - Defendant (Regents) reply merits brief
If you'd like to submit a brief document to be included for this opinion, please submit an e-mail to the SCOCAL website
Dec 1, 2010
Annotated by emurphy

General Summary

Unlawful aliens can be eligible for the same reduced tuition at public colleges and universities in California as legal residents of the state and nonresidents meeting certain criteria. The state law is not in violation of, and not preempted by, federal law because eligibility for the tuition exemption is not based on residence.

Facts

Plaintiffs are challenging the validity of a California educational law by arguing that it violates federal immigration law. Plaintiffs are a group of U.S. citizens from other states who are or were not eligible for reduced tuition at California universities and colleges, whose primary complaint is that they were “illegally denied exemption from nonresident tuition” when that benefit was given to unlawful aliens. Plaintiffs filed a lawsuit seeking injuctive relief and declaratory relief. The complaint alleged that the California law (Ed. Code § 68130.5) exempting some nonresidents who meet certain requirements from paying the nonresident tutition in California’s colleges and universities violated several provisions of federal law (8 U.S.C. § 1621 and 1623), the equal protection and privilege and immunities clauses of the United States Constitution, and California constitutional and state law.

Defendants are the Regents of the University of California (Regents) and others, including officials representing the California State University system and the California Community Colleges

Procedural History

Plaintiffs filed suit in Yolo County Superior Court in 2005. The trial court sustained defendant’s demurrer and dismissed the action without leave to amend. Plaintiffs appealed, and the Court of Appeal reversed the judgment.

The Court of Appeal held, in relevant part, that the disputed California law was expressely preempted by 8 U.S.C. § 1621 and 1623, also impliedly preempted, that the plaintiffs should be allowed to amend their complaint with respect to the equal protection claim, and that the complaint stated a viable claim with respect to the privileges and immunities clause violation. Both parties appealed, and the California Supreme Court granted the defendant’s appeal.

Relevant statutory language

California Educational Code § 68130.5

8 U.S.C. § 1623

8 U.S.C. § 1621

Issue

Does federal immigration law preempt California’s policy of granting in-state tuition to nonresident high school graduates? More specifically, is California’s policy of exempting certain nonresidents from out-of-state tuition based on a residence requirement, in violation of federal law?

Holding

By unanimous decision, the California Supreme Court reversed the Court of Appeal and held that the exemption from non-resident tuition under § 68130.5 is not based on residence in California, and therefore does not violate federal law 8 U.S.C. § 1623. For additional reasons, § 68130.5 does not violate 8 U.S.C. § 1621, is not impliedly preempted by federal law, and does not violate the Fourteenth Amendment.

Analysis

The court explicitly set policy aside and analyzed the question solely by methods of statutory construction. The dispositive analysis was that § 68130.5 does not violate § 1623 because the exemption from paying out-of-state tuition is not based on residence, but on other criteria. The criteria include that the student possess a California high school degree (or equivalent), that they have attended high school in California for three or more years, and that if they are unlawful aliens they file an affidavit stating that they will attempt to legalize their immigration status. The court found that, contrary to the Court of Appeals, these criteria are not “surrogates” for actual residency, and listed three specific examples where a nonresident may qualify for the exemption: (1) students living in an adjoining state or country may attend a California high school even though they are not residents, (2) children from out-of-state who attend boarding schools in California maintain residency in their parents’ home state, and (3) a student could attend high school in California for three years but then move out of state.

The court rejected plaintiff’s arguments that legislative history should alter the meaning of the plain language of the federal law section 1623 (which specifically prohibits the distribution of educational benefits to unlawful aliens based on residency status, without making a citizen eligible for the same benefit). The court also rejected the plaintiff’s argument, adopted by the Court of Appeals, that section 68130.5 did not “affirmatively provide” for the eligibility conditions of unlawful aliens as required under 8 U.S.C. 1621, again reaching the result based on a plain language analysis of both the state and federal statutes. Moreover, the court rejected plaintiff’s arguments that the state law was invalid under “implied preemption,” because implied preemption is impossible where express preemption - provided by sections 1621 and 1623 - forecloses the possibility of implied preemption for matters beyond the reach of express preemption. (“In short, Congress did not impliedly prohibit what it expressly permitted.”) Finally, the court overruled the Court of Appeals in holding that the plaintiffs did not have a constitutional claim under the privileges and immunities clause, because section 1623 was not violated by the California state law, and moreover that the privileges and immunities clause does not speak to the question of postsecondary educational benefits for unlawful aliens.

Disposition

The judgment of the Court of Appeals is reversed, and the matter remanded for further proceedings.

Cited Cases

Viva! Internat. Voice for Animals v. Adidas Promotional Retail Operations Inc. (2007) 41 Cal.4th 929.

In re Jose C. (2009) 45 Cal.4th 534.

Coalition of Concerned Communities, Inc. v. City of Los Angeles (2004) 34 Cal.4th 733

Exxon Mobil Corp. v. Allapattah Services, Inc. (2005) 545 U.S. 546

Freightliner Corp. v. Myrick (1995) 514 U.S. 280

Tags

education, preemption, immigration, residency, choice of law, privileges and immunities, fourteenth amendment, legislative history, educational benefits, illegal aliens, unlawful aliens, undocumented immigrants, university of california, regents, resident, nonresident

Annotation by Emily Murphy