Supreme Court of California Justia
Docket No. S107885

People v. Celis

Filed 7/26/04

IN THE SUPREME COURT OF CALIFORNIA

THE PEOPLE,
Plaintiff and Respondent,
S107885
v.
) Ct.App.
4/1
D037578
RENATO CELIS,
San
Diego
County
Defendant and Appellant.
Super. Ct. No. SCD 152535

Suspecting defendant of drug trafficking, police officers stopped him at
gunpoint behind his house, handcuffed him, and made him sit on the ground. The
officers then entered defendant’s house to determine whether there was anyone
inside who might endanger their safety. They did not find anyone, but they did
see a large box with uniformly sized, wrapped packages that, after a search,
proved to contain cocaine.
We address two issues. Was the officers’ initial seizure of defendant an
arrest requiring probable cause, or was it merely a detention requiring only a
reasonable suspicion of criminal activity? And was the officers’ entry into and
inspection of defendant’s house permissible as a “protective sweep” under the
United States Supreme Court’s decision in Maryland v. Buie (1990) 494 U.S. 325
(Buie)? We conclude that defendant was initially detained, not arrested, and that
the facts known to the officers fell short of those necessary to justify a Buie
protective sweep.

1



I
Defendant was charged in San Diego County with conspiracy (Pen. Code,
§ 182, subd. (a)(1)) and possession of more than 20 kilograms of cocaine for sale
(Health & Saf. Code, §§ 11351, 11370.4, subd. (a)(4)). He moved to suppress the
evidence. (Pen. Code, § 1538.5.)
At the hearing on the suppression motion, the prosecution presented
testimony by Detective John Strain of the Tustin Police Department in Orange
County. Strain was a member of a task force investigating state-wide drug
trafficking by a group suspected of concealing and transporting drugs inside large
truck tires. In December 1999, task force members saw a small red pickup truck
deliver one such tire to a residence in Los Angeles County. Suspecting that the
tire would be used to transport drugs, police executed a search warrant at that site
and seized $400,000 in cash and the tire, which had been slit open. Later,
California Highway Patrol officers stopped the red pickup truck in San Diego
County. Hidden in a false compartment in the truck was $50,000 in cash. In
January 2000, task force members found another cut-open truck tire together with
drug packaging materials in an abandoned house in Los Angeles County. In none
of these incidents did police recover drugs or weapons.
Task
force
members
later
learned that the red pickup truck involved in the
truck tire delivery in Los Angeles County was registered to someone with an
address on Concepcion Street in the City of San Diego. During surveillance at
that location, they saw a car parked outside; they traced its registration to a San
Diego house on A Street, defendant’s residence. They then put defendant’s house
under surveillance.
2

On April 26, 2000, Detective Strain saw defendant leave his home in a
minivan and drive to a tire store in San Diego. There, defendant put an air
pressurizing tank into his van and drove home. Later that same day, he drove to
the Mexican border with the tank still in his minivan. He parked his car and
walked across the border, where the undercover officers lost sight of him.
The next day, task force members followed defendant as he drove around
San Diego with his wife. Defendant engaged in “evasive driving,” such as making
abrupt lane changes, which to Detective Strain indicated that defendant knew he
was being followed. Later that day, defendant drove from his home to the same
tire store he had visited the previous day. He left the store with a deflated tire.
The tire was too big for defendant’s minivan, but Detective Strain thought it would
fit a one-ton pickup truck. That same day, defendant returned to the tire store, this
time accompanied by a man, who was later identified as Luis Ordaz. They took an
air pressurizing tank into the tire shop. After a while, they returned with the tank
to defendant’s house and took it inside.
Some 40 minutes later, defendant came through the back door of his house,
rolling a large inflated truck tire toward the alley. It appeared to Detective Strain
to be the same tire defendant had brought back from the tire shop. About the same
time, Ordaz arrived in the alley driving a full-sized green pickup truck.
Suspecting that the tire defendant was rolling toward the alley contained either
money or narcotics, Detective Strain pulled out his gun and ordered defendant and
Ordaz to stop. Defendant was handcuffed and made to sit down against the wall
of the house. Because Detective Strain had noticed that defendant’s wife and
“possibly a male juvenile” lived with him, Strain together with other officers
entered the house to determine if there was anyone inside who might endanger
their safety. It took less than two minutes to walk through the 500-square-foot
house. The officers did not find anyone inside, but did see a wooden box large
3
enough to conceal a person. Inside the box were several uniformly sized, wrapped
packages. Some 20 minutes later, the officers obtained defendant’s consent to
search the packages, which proved to contain 16 kilograms of cocaine. They also
searched the large truck tire, which contained 25 kilograms of cocaine.
After denial of his motion to suppress evidence, defendant pled guilty and
received a 12-year prison sentence. The Court of Appeal rejected defendant’s
challenge to the trial court’s denial of his suppression motion, and it affirmed the
judgment of conviction. We granted defendant’s petition for review.
II
The federal Constitution’s Fourth Amendment, made applicable to the
states through the Fourteenth Amendment, prohibits unreasonable seizures. Our
state Constitution includes a similar prohibition. (Cal. Const., art. I, § 13.) “A
seizure occurs whenever a police officer ‘by means of physical force or show of
authority’ restrains the liberty of a person to walk away.” (People v. Souza (1994)
9 Cal.4th 224, 229, quoting Terry v. Ohio (1968) 392 U.S. 1, 19, fn. 16.) Whether
a seizure has taken place is to be determined by an objective test, which asks “not
whether the citizen perceived that he was being ordered to restrict his movement,
but whether the officer’s words and actions would have conveyed that to a
reasonable person.” (California v. Hodari D. (1999) 499 U.S. 621, 628.) Thus,
when police engage in conduct that would “communicate[] to a reasonable person
that he was not at liberty to ignore the police presence and go about his business,”
there has been a seizure. (Kaupp v. Texas (2003) 538 U.S. 626, 629; Florida v.
Bostick (1991) 501 U.S. 429, 437.)
When the seizure of a person amounts to an arrest, it must be supported by
an arrest warrant or by probable cause. (Kaupp v. Texas, supra, 538 U.S. at
p. 630.) Probable cause exists when the facts known to the arresting officer would
persuade someone of “reasonable caution” that the person to be arrested has
4
committed a crime. (Dunaway v. New York (1979) 442 U.S. 200, 208, fn. 9.)
“[P]robable cause is a fluid concept – turning on the assessment of probabilities in
particular factual contexts.” (Illinois v. Gates (1983) 462 U.S. 213, 232.) It is
incapable of precise definition. (Maryland v. Pringle (2003) 540 U.S. ___, ___,
124 S.Ct. 795, 800.) “ ‘The substance of all the definitions of probable cause is a
reasonable ground for belief of guilt,’ ” and that belief must be “particularized
with respect to the person to be . . . seized.” (Ibid.)
But “not all seizures of the person must be justified by probable cause to
arrest for a crime.” (Florida v. Royer (1983) 460 U.S. 491, 498 (plur. opn.).) In
Terry v. Ohio, supra, 392 U.S. 1, the United States Supreme Court created a
limited exception that allows police officers to “stop and . . . frisk for weapons”
when they have an “articulable suspicion [the] person has committed or is about to
commit a crime.” (Florida v. Royer, supra, at p. 498.) Thus, an officer who lacks
probable cause to arrest can conduct a brief investigative detention when there is
“ ‘some objective manifestation’ that criminal activity is afoot and that the person
to be stopped is engaged in that activity.” (People v. Souza, supra, 9 Cal.4th at
p. 230; see also United States v. Cortez (1981) 449 U.S. 411, 417.) Because an
investigative detention allows the police to ascertain whether suspicious conduct is
criminal activity, such a detention “must be temporary and last no longer than is
necessary to effectuate the purpose of the stop.” (Florida v. Royer, supra, at
p. 500; see also Wilson v. Superior Court (1983) 34 Cal.3d 777, 784 [describing a
detention as limited in “duration, scope and purpose”].)
The distinction between a detention and an arrest “may in some instances
create difficult line-drawing problems.” (United States v. Sharpe (1985) 470 U.S.
675, 685; see also United States v. Torres-Sanchez (9th Cir. 1996) 83 F.3d 1123,
1127 [there is no “ ‘bright-line for determining when an investigatory stop crosses
the line and becomes an arrest’ ”].) This much is clear: A brief stop and pat-down
5
of someone suspected of criminal activity is merely an investigative detention
requiring no more than a reasonable suspicion. (Terry v. Ohio, supra, 392 U.S. at
pp. 6-7.) But removing a 17-year-old youth from his bed at 3 a.m. and
transporting him in handcuffs by patrol car to the police station for questioning has
been held to be unreasonable absent probable cause to believe that the youth has
committed a crime. (Kaupp v. Texas, supra, 538 U.S. at p. 630.) In the high
court’s view, such “involuntary transport to a police station for questioning is
‘sufficiently like arres[t] to invoke the traditional rule that arrests may
constitutionally be made only on probable cause.’ ” (Ibid.)
Defendant
here
contends
he was subjected to a warrantless arrest when, as
he was rolling a large truck tire into the alley behind his house, he was stopped at
gunpoint, handcuffed, and made to sit on the ground while police officers walked
through the house to determine if anyone posing a danger to their safety was
inside. For reasons discussed below, we conclude that stopping and handcuffing
defendant, and making him sit on the ground for a few minutes was only an
investigative detention.
“[T]here is no hard and fast line to distinguish permissible investigative
detentions from impermissible de facto arrests. Instead, the issue is decided on the
facts of each case, with focus on whether the police diligently pursued a means of
investigation reasonably designed to dispel or confirm their suspicions quickly,
using the least intrusive means reasonably available under the circumstances.” (In
re Carlos M. (1990) 220 Cal.App.3d 372, 384-385; see also United States v.
Sharpe, supra, 470 U.S. at pp. 685-688.) Important to this assessment, however,
are the “duration, scope and purpose” of the stop. (Wilson v. Superior Court,
supra, 34 Cal.3d at p. 784.)
With respect to duration, the United States Supreme Court has said that
“ ‘the brevity of the invasion of the individual’s Fourth Amendment interests is an
6
important factor in determining whether the seizure is so minimally intrusive as to
be justifiable on reasonable suspicion.’ ” (United States v. Sharpe, supra, 470
U.S. at p. 685.)
With regard to the scope of the police intrusion, stopping a suspect at
gunpoint, handcuffing him, and making him sit on the ground for a short period, as
occurred here, do not convert a detention into an arrest. (See People v. Soun
(1995) 34 Cal.App.4th 1499, 1517 [detention when the defendant “was removed
from the car at gunpoint by a large number of police officers, was forced to lie on
the ground, was handcuffed and placed in a patrol car, was transported from the
site of the stop a distance of three blocks to a parking lot,” where he was held for
30 minutes]; In re Carlos M., supra, 220 Cal.App.3d at p. 384 [detention when
defendant was handcuffed and transported to hospital for identification by rape
victim; 30-minute duration]; Haynie v. County of Los Angeles (9th 2003) 339 F.3d
1071, 1077 [“A brief . . . restriction of liberty, such as handcuffing, during a Terry
stop is not a de facto arrest.”]; Gallegos v. City of Los Angeles (9th Cir. 2002) 308
F.3d 987, 991 [driver stopped at gunpoint and ordered out of his truck, handcuffed
and held in a patrol car for between 45 and 60 minutes was detained, not arrested];
United States v. Alvarez (9th Cir. 1990) 899 F.2d 833, 838-839 [investigative
detention when defendant forced at gunpoint to get out of his car]; United States v.
Buffington (9th Cir. 1987) 815 F.2d 1292, 1300 [no arrest when driver was
stopped at gunpoint, ordered out of car and forced to lie on the ground]; United
States v. Bautista (9th Cir. 1982) 684 F.2d 1286, 1289 [handcuffing did not
convert detention into arrest]; but see People v. Campbell (1981) 118 Cal.App.3d
588, 595-596 [defendant functionally under arrest when police at an airport
stopped him at gunpoint, handcuffed him, and took him to an office for
questioning; restraint went beyond that “reasonably necessary for a detention.”].)
7

Of significance too are the facts known to the officers in determining
whether their actions went beyond those necessary to effectuate the purpose of the
stop, that is, to quickly dispel or confirm police suspicions of criminal activity.
(Florida v. Royer, supra, 460 U.S. at p. 500; In re Carlos M., supra, 220
Cal.App.3d at p. 384.) Although a routine traffic stop would rarely justify a police
officer in drawing a gun or using handcuffs, such actions may be appropriate when
the stop is of someone suspected of committing a felony.
Here, Detective Strain had reason to suspect that defendant was concealing
either drugs or drug proceeds in the large truck tire he was rolling out the back
door of his house toward a waiting pickup truck driven by Ordaz. Faced with two
suspects, each of whom might flee if Detective Strain stopped one but not the
other, it was not unreasonable for him to draw his gun to ensure that both suspects
would stop. Doing so did not turn defendant’s investigative detention into an
arrest; nor did the use of handcuffs or making defendant sit on the ground for the
few minutes it took Strain and his fellow officers to walk through defendant’s 500-
square-foot house to ascertain the presence of persons posing a danger to the
officers.1
We next decide whether, as defendant contends, the warrantless police
entry into defendant’s house was an unreasonable search.
III
The federal and state Constitutions prohibit not only unreasonable seizures
but also unreasonable searches. (U.S. Const., 4th & 14th Amends.; Cal. Const.,
art. I, § 13.) “It is axiomatic that the ‘physical entry of the home is the chief evil
against which the wording of the Fourth Amendment is directed.’ ” (Welsh v.

1
Inside, the officers saw a large wooden box containing uniformly sized
wrapped packages, which Detective Strain described as “numerous kilos” of what
he surmised to be cocaine.
8


Wisconsin (1984) 466 U.S. 740, 748.) A warrantless entry is “presumptively
unreasonable.” (Payton v. New York (1980) 445 U.S. 573, 587.) This
presumption can be overcome by a showing of one of the few “specifically
established and well-delineated exceptions” to the warrant requirement (Katz v.
United States (1967) 389 U.S. 347, 357), such as “ ‘hot pursuit of a fleeing felon,
or imminent destruction of evidence, . . . or the need to prevent a suspect’s escape,
or the risk of danger to the police or to other persons inside or outside the
dwelling’ ” (Minnesota v. Olson (1990) 495 U.S. 91, 100). The United States
Supreme Court has indicated that entry into a home based on exigent
circumstances requires probable cause to believe that the entry is justified by one
of these factors such as the imminent destruction of evidence or the need to
prevent a suspect’s escape. (Ibid.)
One recognized exigent circumstance that will support the warrantless entry
of a home -- the risk of danger to police or others on the scene -- also provides the
justification for a “protective sweep” of a residence under the high court’s decision
in Buie, supra, 494 U.S. 325.
In
Buie, defendant and another man robbed a restaurant. One of the robbers
was wearing a red jogging suit. Police obtained an arrest warrant for the
defendant and executed it at his house. There, one officer shouted into the
basement for everyone to come up. When the defendant did so, he was promptly
arrested. Another officer then entered the basement “ ‘in case there was someone
else’ down there.” (Buie, supra, 494 U.S. at p. 328.) In plain view the officer saw
a red jogging suit, which he seized. (Ibid.) Charged with the restaurant robbery,
the defendant moved to suppress the jogging suit. The trial court denied the
motion. That ruling was overturned by the Maryland Court of Appeals, that
state’s highest tribunal, which invalidated the search because the officers lacked
probable cause to search the basement. (Id. at p. 329.) That decision, in turn, was
9
vacated by the United States Supreme Court, which concluded that the probable
cause standard did not apply to a “protective sweep.” (Id. at pp. 327, 337.) The
court explained that as incident to an arrest “the officers could, as a precautionary
matter and without probable cause or reasonable suspicion, look in closets and
other spaces immediately adjoining the place of arrest from which an attack could
be immediately launched.” (Id. at p. 334 [describing the limited search incident to
arrest authorized by Chimel v. California (1969) 395 U.S. 752, 762].) But it
stressed that beyond that, an inspection undertaken outside the immediate area of
the arrest must be supported by “articulable facts which, taken together with the
rational inferences from those facts, would warrant a reasonably prudent officer in
believing that the area to be swept harbors an individual posing a danger to those
on the arrest scene.” (Buie, supra, at p. 334.) The high court then remanded the
case to the Maryland Court of Appeals to reconsider whether the prosecution’s
evidence at the suppression hearing was sufficient to justify the officer’s entry into
the basement as a “protective sweep” under the reasonable suspicion standard
articulated in Buie. (Id. at p. 337.)
In authorizing the protective sweep of the defendant’s house in Buie, supra,
494 U.S. 325, the high court drew on principles set out in Terry v. Ohio, supra,
392 U.S. 1. That decision allowed officers incident to an on-the-street detention to
conduct “a limited patdown for weapons where a reasonably prudent officer would
be warranted in the belief, based on ‘specific and articulable facts,’ and not on a
mere ‘inchoate and unparticularized suspicion or “hunch,” ’ ‘that he is dealing
with an armed and dangerous individual.’ ” (Buie, supra, at p. 332, quoting Terry
v. Ohio, supra, at pp. 21, 27.) Buie recognized that with “an arrest in the home,”
there existed “an analogous interest of the officers in taking steps to assure
themselves that the house in which a suspect is being, or has just been, arrested is
10
not harboring other persons who are dangerous and who could unexpectedly
launch an attack.” (Id. at p. 333.)
From the high court’s decision in Buie, supra, 494 U.S. 325, we draw these
conclusions: A protective sweep of a house for officer safety as described in Buie,
does not require probable cause to believe there is someone posing a danger to the
officers in the area to be sweep. (Buie, supra, at p. 327.) A Buie sweep is unlike
warrantless entry into a house based on exigent circumstances (one of which
concerns the risk of danger to police officers or others on the scene); such an entry
into a home must be supported by probable cause to believe that a dangerous
person will be found inside. (See Minnesota v. Olson, supra, 495 U.S. 91, 100.)
A protective sweep can be justified merely by a reasonable suspicion that the area
to be swept harbors a dangerous person. (Buie, supra, at p. 327.) Like the limited
patdown for weapons authorized by Terry v. Ohio, supra, 392 U.S. 1, 21, 27, a
protective sweep may not be based on “a mere ‘inchoate and unparticularized
suspicion or “hunch.” ’ ” (Buie, supra, at p. 332.)
In
Buie, supra, 494 U.S. 325, the officer who conducted the protective
sweep of the defendant’s basement did so while already lawfully inside the house
to serve an arrest warrant. Given these facts, questions arise whether Buie’s
lowered level of justification -- reasonable suspicion that a person posing a danger
to the officers is in the area to be searched -- is limited only to those situations in
which the officers are already lawfully inside a house conducting an arrest, or
whether it will support the entry into a house, as in this case, by officers who lack
probable cause to make an arrest but who have lawfully detained a suspect just
outside. Appellate courts have differed regarding the requirements for a protective
sweep. Some have concluded, consistent with the facts presented in Buie, that a
protective sweep must be “incident to” a lawful arrest inside a house. (See United
States v. Davis (10th Cir. 2002) 290 F.3d 1239, 1242, fn. 4 [protective sweep must
11
be “incident to” lawful arrest inside a house]; United States v. Reid (9th Cir. 2000)
226 F.3d 1020, 1027 [when a suspect is detained after fleeing an apartment, Buie
does not authorize protective sweep of the apartment].) Other courts have upheld
protective sweeps when the officers were lawfully inside a house for some purpose
other than to arrest a suspect. (See United States v. Gould (5th Cir. en banc 2004)
364 F.3d 578 [officers lawfully inside house with consent can conduct a protective
sweep for officer safety]; United States v. Daoust (1st Cir. 1990) 916 F.2d 757
[upholding protective sweep incident to serving a search warrant].) Still others
have allowed a protective sweep of a house when the officers were not inside the
house at all, but had arrested a suspect just outside; in these cases the officers then
entered the house to conduct the sweep. (See United States v. Wilson (5th Cir.
2001) 306 F.3d 231, 238-239; United States v. Watson (5th Cir. 2001) 273 F.3d
599, 603; Sharrar v. Felsing (3d Cir. 1997) 128 F.3d 810, 823; United States v.
Colbert (6th Cir. 1996) 76 F.3d 773; United States v. Henry (D.C. Cir. 1995) 48
F.3d 1282, 1284.)
Those cases upholding the entry of a house for a protective sweep after
police had made an arrest outside the house relied on the rationale that “in some
circumstances, an arrest taking place just outside a home may pose an equally
serious threat to the arresting officers” as one conducted inside the house. (United
States v. Colbert, supra, 76 F.3d at p. 776, italics added; accord, Sharrar v.
Felsing, supra, 128 F.3d at p. 824.) Would that rationale also apply when officers
enter a home to conduct a protective sweep after lawfully detaining a suspect
outside the residence? (See State v. Revenaugh (1999) 173 Idaho 774, 776-777
[992 P.2d 769, 777-778] [upholding warrantless entry of house as “protective
sweep” after officers detained defendant on his front porch on suspicion of drug
possession].) That is an issue we need not resolve here because the facts known to
the officers when they entered defendant’s house fell short of the reasonable
12
suspicion standard necessary to justify a protective sweep under Buie, supra, 494
U.S. 325.
When, as here, we review a ruling on a defense motion to suppress
evidence, we defer to the trial court’s factual findings, but we independently apply
the requisite legal standard to the facts presented. (People v. Ayala (2000) 23
Cal.4th 225, 255; People v. Alvarez (1996) 14 Cal.4th 155, 182.) Officer Strain
testified that the officers had on April 26 and 27, 2000 conducted a surveillance of
defendant’s house on A Street in San Diego. During that time, the officers noted
the presence of defendant’s wife and “possibly a male juvenile” in the home. But
when on the afternoon of April 27th the officers entered defendant’s house for a
protective sweep just moments after detaining defendant in his backyard as he
rolled a large truck tire toward Ordaz’s waiting truck in the alley, they had no
knowledge of the presence of anyone in defendant’s house. As the trial court
found, the officers “had not been keeping track of who was in the house”; thus,
when they entered the house to conduct a protective sweep, they did so without
“any information as to whether anyone was inside the house.” Also, there is no
indication that when stopped by the officers, either defendant or Ordaz was armed.
Moreover, until defendant later consented to a search of the large truck tire he was
rolling from the back door of his house toward the alley, the officers were unaware
that the tire (like the similar tires found in the two Los Angeles County
investigations we discussed earlier) had been cut open and then resealed to conceal
cocaine. The facts known to the officers before they performed the protective
sweep fell short of what Buie requires, that is, “articulable facts” considered
13
together with the rational inferences drawn from those facts, that would warrant a
reasonably prudent officer to entertain a reasonable suspicion that the area to be
swept harbors a person posing a danger to officer safety. (Buie, supra, 494 U.S. at
pp. 327, 334.)
Unquestionably, the work of a police officer in the field is often fraught
with danger. At any given moment, a seemingly safe encounter or confrontation
with a citizen can suddenly turn into an armed and deadly attack on the officer.
Society’s interest in protecting police officers must, however, be balanced against
the constitutionally protected interest of citizens to be free of unreasonable
searches and seizures. In considering both interests, the United States Supreme
Court has articulated certain legal rules, allowing, for instance, a warrantless entry
into a home when exigent circumstances exist, or permitting a protective sweep of
areas of a home where persons in hiding may pose a danger to officer safety. As
we mentioned earlier, when the entry of a house for officer safety is based on
exigent circumstances, the officers must have probable cause to believe that a
dangerous person will be found inside. (See Minnesota v. Olson, supra, 495 U.S.
91, 100.) But a protective sweep, as described by the high court in Buie, supra,
494 U.S. 325, can be justified by a standard lower than probable cause, namely,
reasonable suspicion. (Id. at p. 327.) Because, as we explained on page 13, ante,
that lower standard was not satisfied here, if follows that the higher standard
requiring probable cause was not met either.
Because neither standard was met, the police entry into defendant’s home
was “presumptively unreasonable.” (Payton v. New York, supra, 445 U.S. 573,
587.)
14

DISPOSITION
The judgment of the Court of Appeal is reversed. On remand, the trial
court is to set aside defendant’s guilty plea, vacate the order denying defendant’s
motion to suppress evidence, and to reconsider that motion in light of our
conclusions here.
KENNARD,
J.
WE CONCUR:

GEORGE, C. J.
BAXTER, J.
CHIN, J.
BROWN, J.
MORENO, J.
15



CONCURRING OPINION BY WERDEGAR, J.

I concur in the majority’s conclusion the police entry into defendant’s home
was unlawful. Unlike the majority, however, I would resolve the case simply by
application of the established principle that, lacking probable cause, the officers’
warrantless entry into defendant’s home was in violation of his Fourth
Amendment right to be free from unreasonable search and seizure. (Minnesota v.
Olson (1990) 495 U.S. 91, 100.)
In speculating about the application of Maryland v. Buie (1990) 494 U.S.
325 (Buie) to circumstances admittedly not present here, i.e., to a detention outside
the home when police have a reasonable suspicion that persons inside the home
might pose a danger to the officers (maj. opn., ante, at pp. 11-13), the majority
goes far afield. Buie is completely inapposite to this case. Buie involved a lawful
arrest, pursuant to a warrant, effected inside the defendant’s home. The high court
held only that, incident to such an arrest, the officers could conduct a protective
sweep of the immediate area of the arrest for purposes of officer safety and, on
reasonable suspicion, a protective sweep of the entire house. (Buie, supra, at
p. 334.) This case, by contrast, involves a detention, a detention, moreover,
effected well outside the home and unattended by either probable cause or
reasonable suspicion to believe dangerous persons would be found inside the
house.
As the majority recognizes, “[t]he United States Supreme Court has
indicated that entry into a home based on exigent circumstances requires probable
cause to believe that the entry is justified” (maj. opn., ante, at p. 9). The high
court also has recognized that, incident to a lawful arrest within a home, a
1



protective sweep of the home beyond the immediate area of the arrest may be
justified by reasonable suspicion. (Buie, supra, 494 U.S. at p. 334.) This case
involves neither. Here police detained defendant outside his home. Accordingly,
their warrantless entry into the home unsupported by probable cause violated his
Fourth Amendment right to be free from unreasonable search and seizure. Our
opinion need say no more.
WERDEGAR, J.
2

See next page for addresses and telephone numbers for counsel who argued in Supreme Court.

Name of Opinion People v. Celis
__________________________________________________________________________________

Unpublished Opinion


Original Appeal
Original Proceeding
Review Granted
XXX 98 Cal.App.4th 621
Rehearing Granted

__________________________________________________________________________________

Opinion No.

S107885
Date Filed: July 26, 2004
__________________________________________________________________________________

Court:

Superior
County: San Diego
Judge: Albert T. Harutunian III and Peter C. Deddeh

__________________________________________________________________________________

Attorneys for Appellant:

Nicholas DePento for Defendant and Appellant.

__________________________________________________________________________________

Attorneys for Respondent:

Bill Lockyer, Attorney General, Robert R. Anderson, Chief Assistant Attorney General, Gary W. Schons,
Assistant Attorney General, Steven T. Oetting, Rhonda L. Cartwright-Ladendorf and Sabrina Y. Lane-
Erwin, Deputy Attorneys General, for Plaintiff and Respondent.



Counsel who argued in Supreme Court (not intended for publication with opinion):

Nicholas DePento
444 West C Street, #120
San Diego, CA 92101
(619) 236-1151

Sabrina Y. Lane-Erwin
Deputy Attorney General
110 West “A” Street, Suite 1100
San Diego, CA 92101
(619) 645-2565


Opinion Information
Date:Docket Number:
Mon, 07/26/2004S107885

Parties
1Celis, Renato Salvador (Defendant and Appellant)
Represented by Nicholas Depento
Attorney at Law
444 West C Street, Suite 120
San Diego, CA

2The People (Plaintiff and Respondent)
Represented by Attorney General - San Diego Office
Sabrina Lane-Erwin
P.O. Box 85266
San Diego, CA

3Cerul, Alex (Pub/Depublication Requestor)
551 E. Empire Street
San Jose, CA 95112


Disposition
Jul 26 2004Opinion: Reversed

Dockets
Jun 27 2002Request for depublication filed (initial case event)
  by Alex Cerul (non-party)
Jul 1 2002Petition for review filed
  by counsel for appellant (Renato Salvador Celis)
Jul 1 2002Record requested
 
Jul 2 2002Received Court of Appeal record
  1-doghouse
Aug 28 2002Petition for Review Granted (criminal case)
  Votes: George, CJ., Kennard, Chin, Brown and Moreno, JJ.
Sep 30 2002Opening brief on the merits filed
  appellant Renato Salvador Celis
Oct 18 2002Request for extension of time filed
  In San Diego by counsel for Respondent requesting until December 2, 2002 to file respondent's answer brief on the merits.
Oct 24 2002Extension of time granted
  To December 2, 2002 to file Respondent's Answer Brief on the Merits.
Nov 21 2002Request for extension of time filed
  In San Diego by Respondent asking until January 2, 2003, to file Respondent's Answer Brief on the Merits.
Dec 6 2002Extension of time granted
  To January 2, 2003 to file Respondent's Answer Brief on the Merits.
Dec 31 2002Answer brief on the merits filed
  In San Diego by counsel for Respondent {The People}.
Jan 21 2003Request for extension of time filed
  By counsel for appellant asking for a 30 day extension to file Appellant's Reply Brief on the Merits.
Jan 31 2003Extension of time granted
  To February 20, 2003 to file Appellant's Reply Brief on the Merits.
Feb 4 2003Reply brief filed (case fully briefed)
  by counsel for appellant Renato Salvador Celis
Feb 10 2003Received:
  Appellant's Certificate of Word Count.
Apr 6 2004Case ordered on calendar
  5-4-04, 9am, S.F.
Apr 22 2004Supplemental brief filed
  In San Diego by counsel for Respondent. (New Authorities).
May 4 2004Cause argued and submitted
 
Jul 26 2004Opinion filed: Judgment reversed
  On remand, the trial court is to set aside defendant's guilty plea, vacate the order denying defendant's motion to suppress evidence, and to reconsider that motion in light of our conclusions here. Majority Opinion by Kennard, J. ----- Joined by George, CJ., Baxter, Chin, Brown and Moreno, JJ. Concurring Opinion by Werdegar, J.
Aug 26 2004Remittitur issued (criminal case)
 
Sep 10 2004Received:
  receipt for remittitur.

Briefs
Sep 30 2002Opening brief on the merits filed
 
Dec 31 2002Answer brief on the merits filed
 
Feb 4 2003Reply brief filed (case fully briefed)
 
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